Manual Testing is a type of software testing in which test
cases are executed manually by a tester without using any automated tools. The purpose of Manual Testing is to identify
the bugs, issues, and defects in the software application. Manual software testing is
the most primitive technique of all testing types and it helps to find critical bugs in
the software application.
Any new application must be manually tested before its testing can be automated. Manual Software Testing requires more effort but is necessary to check automation feasibility. Manual Testing concepts does not require knowledge of any testing tool. One of the Software Testing Fundamental is “100% Automation is not possible“. This makes Manual Testing imperative.
In this Manual Testing tutorial for beginners, we cover all manual testing concepts and topics in detail.
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Goal of Manual Testing
The key concept of manual testing is to ensure that the application is error free and it is working in conformance to the specified functional requirements.
Test Suites or cases, are designed during the testing phase and should have 100% test coverage.
It also makes sure that reported defects are fixed by developers and re-testing has been performed by testers on the fixed defects.
Basically, this testing checks the quality of the system and delivers bug-free product to the customer.
Types of Manual Testing:
Below given diagram depicts Manual Testing Types. In fact, any type of software testing type can be executed both manually as well using an automation tool.
- Black Box Testing
- White Box Testing
- Unit Testing
- System Testing
- Integration Testing
- Acceptance Testing
How to perform Manual Testing
- Read and understand the software project documentation/guides. Also, study the Application Under Test (AUT) if available.
- Draft Test cases that cover all the requirements mentioned in the documentation.
- Review and baseline the test cases with Team Lead, Client (as applicable)
- Execute the test cases on the AUT
- Report bugs.
- Once bugs are fixed, again execute the failing test cases to verify they pass.
Myths of Manual Testing
Following are few common myths and facts related to testing:
Myth: Anyone can do manual testing
Fact: Testing requires many skill sets
Myth: Testing ensures 100% Defect free product
Fact: Testing attempts to find as many defects as possible. Identifying all possible defects is impossible.
Myth: Automated testing is more powerful than manual testing
Fact: 100% test automation cannot be done. Manual Software Testing is also essential.
Myth: Testing is easy
Fact: Testing can be extremely challenging. Testing an application for possible use cases with minimum test cases requires high analytical skills.
Manual Testing vs Automation Testing
|Manual Testing||Automated Testing|
|Manual testing requires human intervention for test execution.||Automation Testing is use of tools to execute test cases|
|Manual testing will require skilled labour, long time & will imply high costs.||Automation Testing saves time, cost and manpower. Once recorded, it’s easier to run an automated test suite|
|Any type of application can be tested manually, certain testing types like ad-hoc and monkey testing are more suited for manual execution.||Automated testing is recommended only for stable systems and is mostly used for Regression Testing|
|Manual testing can become repetitive and boring.||The boring part of executing same test cases time and again is handled by automation software in Automation Testing.|
Tools to Automate Manual Testing
Manual testing is an activity where the tester needs to be very patient, creative & open minded.
Manual testing is a vital part of user-friendly software development because humans are involved in testing software applications and end-users are also humans. They need to think and act with an End User perspective.