85+ Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Here is a list of all the important Software Testing interview questions for freshers and professionals. Get your dream job in software testing with the help of this Software testing interview guide.


Software Testing Interview Questions for Freshers

1) What is Integration testing?

Integration testing is a software testing method that combines and tests individual application components. It is generally performed after unit and functional Testing.

2) What Is Random Testing?

Random Testing, also known as Ad hoc Testing, is a method that doesn’t follow any test cases or requirements associated with the application. In many cases, it is an unplanned activity where any application part is randomly checked to find defects.

3) What is SDLC?

SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle) is a systematic process for developing software to ensure the quality and correctness of the software built. It is a short form of the Software Development Life Cycle process that aims to produce high-quality software which meets customer expectations.

The development should be complete in the pre-defined time frame and cost. This life cycle consists of a detailed plan which explains how to plan, build, and maintain specific software.

4) What is Data-driven Testing?

Data-driven Testing is the execution of test scripts repeatedly using data sources such as XML files, spreadsheets, Microsoft Excel, and SQL databases.

In order to generate the output, you can use these data sources as input values. After that, its’ outcome is compared to verify the system or software.

Data-driven Testing

5) What are the best practices for writing test cases?

Write test cases from the end user’s perspective:

  • Write test steps simply and easily so that anyone can follow them easily
  • Make the test cases reusable
  • Set the given priority
  • You should describe the test case, test data, expected results, preconditions, and postconditions.
  • Write invalid test cases apart from valid test cases
  • Follow all the proper naming conventions
  • Review the test cases and update them if necessary.

6) What is Boundary Value Analysis?

It is a software testing technique used to analyze boundary values of partitions of Equivalence classes. This testing method helps you identify errors at the boundaries instead of within the range values.

7) What are important testing metrics?

Here are some important testing metrics:

  • The total number of bugs fixed.
  • Number of defects found and the order of their severity.
  • Total number of problems that are caused by source code error vs. configuration or external environmental factors
  • Bugfix rate over time
  • Numbers of outstanding bugs before release.
  • Failures reported by the users vs. bugs found by the testers.

8) What parameters help check the quality of test execution?

Two most essential parameters for checking the quality of test execution are:

  • The defect rejects ratio is the ratio of total rejections to total Production.
  • The defect leakage ratio is the ratio of total rejections to total Production.

9) What are the different test levels?

  • Four types of test levels are: Unit/component/program/module testing
  • Integration testing
  • System testing
  • Acceptance testing

10) What is Bug/Defect Life Cycle?

The bug life cycle is also called the Defect life cycle. In the Software Development process, every bug has a life cycle. The bug needs to go through the life cycle to be closed. The life cycle of a bug depends on the tools (QC, JIRA, etc.) and the organizational process used.

Bug/Defect Life Cycle

11) What is Configuration management?

Configuration management is a testing method for establishing and maintaining consistency of a product’s physical, performance, functional, design, and operational information. It also brings cost efficiency and better time management to your organization.

12) What are the main components of the defect report format?

Here are the basic components of the defect report format:

  • Name of the Project
  • Name of the Module
  • Defect detected
  • Defect ID
  • Name of the Defect
  • Screenshot of the defect
  • Severity and Priority status
  • Defect resolved by and resolved on

13) What are the differences between Selenium and Sikuli?

Here are some basic differences between Selenium and Sikuli:

Selenium Sikuli
You can’t automate flash objects like video players, audio players, etc. It offers extensive support to automate flash objects
It has got complicated API It has a simple API
It can automate only web applications You can automate the web as well as a windows application.

14) What are the types of Web testing security problems?

  • Denial of Service (DOS) attack
  • Viewing other stats
  • Buffer overflow
  • Directly passing internal URL through browser address

15) What is TestNG?

TestNG is an advanced framework that is designed in a way to leverage the benefits of both the developers and software testers. This program also includes an exception handling mechanism that prevents the program from terminating unexpectedly.

16) What is Defect Cascading?

Defect cascading is a method of triggering other defects in the application when one defect is discovered during Testing. It also invokes other application defects since multiple defects crop up in the later stages of software development.

17) What is the Workbench concept?

A workbench is a document that explains how an activity should be completed. It is also referred to as a step, phase, or task. It acts as a platform for developing and monitoring testers’ work structures. Using the initial data, you can use this method to divide tasks into each phase and reach the customer’s expectations.

Workbench has five tasks:

  • Input
  • Execute
  • Check
  • Production output
  • Rework

18) What are the different strategies for rollout to end users?

The strategies to be followed for the rollout are as follows:

1) Pilot, 2) Gradual Implementation, 3) Phased Implementation, and 4) Parallel Implementation

19) What is a Testbed?

Testbed is software, hardware, and other test items used to support the testing process. The main goal of the testbed is to control and monitor the conditions of the tests. The testbed comprises several tools and technologies in the manual software testing method. Like PHP, frameworks like WordPress or Joomla, and databases like PostgreSQL or MySQL.

20) What is Statement coverage? Explain it with an example.

Statement Coverage is a white box testing method in which all the executable statements in the source code are executed at least once. This code coverage method calculates the number of statements in source code that have been executed.

Let’s see how to calculate statement coverage.

To calculate Statement Coverage for a given source code.


Prints (int a, int b) {                       ------------  Printsum is a function
int result = a+ b;
If (result> 0)
  Print ("Positive", result)
  Print ("Negative", result)
}                                        -----------   End of the source code

Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers for Experienced

21) What are Latent Defects?

Latent defect is a term used to identify hidden undetected flaws in software using some special operations set. These defects only occur when software testing triggers a specific event, concealing their presence.

22) What is the Test Deliverable?

Test deliverables are tools, components, and documents maintained and developed to support the Test.

Here are the test deliverables at different testing phases of the SDLC (software development lifecycle):

1) Before Software Testing 2) During Software Testing 3) After the Software Testing

23) What is Mutation Testing?

The main goal of mutation testing is to validate whether a set of test data or test cases is useful. It is done by deliberately adding multiple code changes (bugs) and retesting with the original test cases and data.

Mutation Testing

24) What is Gamma testing?

Gamma is a testing approach that checks the specified needs when the software is ready for release. It is mainly done at the place of the ultimate user.

25) What is the Test Harness?

A Test Harness is a testing process that gathers software and test information to test an entire program or unit. It runs under various changing conditions like stress, data-driven, and monitoring its behavior and outputs.

26) What is Test Closure?

It is a document that summarizes all the tests conducted during the SDLC (Software development life cycle). It offers a detailed analysis of the removed bugs and errors found.

Test Clouse also contains the aggregate no. of experiments, total numbers of experiments executed, add numbers of bugs that are not settled, the total number of bugs rejected, etc.

27) What is Fuzz Testing?

Fuzz testing is a testing method used to detect software coding errors and security loopholes. In the Fuzz Testing method, random data is added to the system to crash the system. If vulnerability persists, a tool known as a fuzz tester is used to determine potential causes.

28) What is the meaning of End-To-End Testing?

End To End testing is a method of testing an application that helps you to ensure whether it is acting as expected to be working. That should be used to test the application flow from the start to the end.

This testing method aims to examine the entire system’s flow. It also confirms that the data integrity is maintained between the different system components and the systems.

29) What is dynamic software testing?

Compared with static Testing, dynamic software testing tests the software when executing. The software tester runs the software in a test environment, goes through all the steps, enters the inputs, and verifies the actual output with the possible result.

30) What is cross-browser Testing? What tools would you use?

A web application runs in various browsers like Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Edge, Safari, and more. All these browsers work primarily the same in implementing the web standards. Cross-browser Testing helps you check whether your website or app works as intended when using different Browser-OS combinations.

31) What are regression and confirmation Testing?

Here are two important testing methods:

  • Regression Testing confirms that a recent code change has not affected existing features.
  • Confirmation Testing: The defect is reported when a test fails because of a defect. After that, a new software version is submitted with the fixed defect. It is called confirmation testing or retesting.

32) How to skip a method or a code block in TestNG?

You can skip a particular test method or a code; then, you can set the ‘enabled’ parameter in the test annotation to false.

@Test (enabled = false)

33) How to take screenshots in Selenium WebDriver?

  • You can take the screen by using the TakeScreenshot function yo.
  • getScreenshotAs () method allows you to save that screenshot.

34) When should I use Selenium Grid?

The Selenium Grid allows you to execute a test script on multiple platforms and browsers at the same time. This helps you to achieve distributed test execution, testing under different environments and saving execution time remarkably.

35) What is Test Strategy?

Test Strategy is a high-level document usually developed by the project manager. It captures the approach to testing the product and achieving the goals. It is generally derived from the Business Requirement Specification (BRS).

36) What is a Modification Request?

Clients use modification requests in software development to change the software’s existing functionality.

37) What is Verification?

Verification is the process of measuring, For example. It helps to verify whether you are developing the product accordingly or not. Activities involved here are Inspections.

38) What is Grey Box Testing?

Grey box is the combination of White Box and Black Box Testing. Testers involved in this type of Testing should have access to the design documents. It helps to create better test cases in this process.

39) What is Test Coverage?

Test coverage is defined as a metric in Software Testing which measures the amount of Testing performed by a set of Tests. It will include gathering information regarding parts of a program that should be executed when executing the test suite. You can also use it to determine what branches of conditional statements have been taken.

40) What is Decision Coverage?

Example of decision coverage:

Demo (int a) {
If (a> 5)
 Print (a)

Scenario 1:

Value of a is 2

Decision Coverage

Here, the code highlighted in yellow will be executed, and “No” outcome of the decision If (a>5) is checked.

Decision Coverage = 50%

Scenario 2:

Value of a is 6

Decision Coverage

In this scenario code highlighted in yellow will be executed. Here the “Yes” outcome of the decision If (a>5) is checked.

Decision Coverage = 50%

Test Case Value of A Output Decision Coverage
1 2 2 50%
2 6 18 50%

Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers for 3 Years Experienced

41) What do you mean by Sanity testing?

Sanity testing is performed after the build to check the new functionality/defects that need to be fixed in the sanity testing. Its main goal is to check the complete functionality, which helps you to decide whether the bug is fixed and tests the effect of the fixed bug on the application under Test.

42) What is TDD?

Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a software development methodology driven by test cases that helps you to create the functionality to be implemented. The test cases are developed in the TDD method.

43) What is Verification and Validation in Software Testing?

  • Verification: It is a static analysis technique. In this method, Testing is done without executing the code. Examples Reviews, Inspection, and walkthrough.
  • Validation: It is a dynamic analysis method where Testing is conducted by executing the code. Examples of Functional and non-functional testing techniques.

44) How is validation different from verification?

Verification Validation
It evaluates whether the software meets the specification or not. It evaluates whether the specification captures the customer’s needs or not.
Verification is a type of static Testing. Validation is a type of dynamic Testing.
It does not need you to execute the code. It requires code execution.

45) What basis can you map the success of Automation testing?

Based on the Automation testing, the following criteria can be mapped:

  • Defect Detection Ratio
  • Automated execution time and time savings for product release
  • Reduction in Labour and other costs

46) What is Test Strategy?

A test Strategy is a high-level document (static document) usually developed by the project manager. It is a testing document that captures how we test the product and achieve the goals. It is mainly derived from the Business Requirement Specification. An essential document like Test Plan is prepared by keeping this document as a base.

47) What is Client-side Validation?

Client-side validation is done at the browser level, where the user’s input is validated at the browser itself without the involvement of the server.

48) What is Context-driven Testing?

Context-driven Testing is a software testing method for developing and debugging computer software that considers how the programs are expected to be used in the real world.

49) What are exit criteria in Software Testing?

An exit criterion is a set of specific conditions which specify the agreed-upon features or state of the application to indicate the completion of the product or process.

50) What are the various methods of Testing?

Three methods for software testing are:

  • Black-box Testing: Black box testing technique is based solely on requirements and specifications. This strategy requires no knowledge of internal paths, structures, or the software being tested.
  • White box testing is a testing method based on internal paths, code structures, and the software being tested.
  • Gray box testing: It is a method for software debugging in which the software tester has little knowledge of the internal working of the software.

51) What are the different coverage techniques?

Three basic types of coverage techniques are:

  • Statement coverage: This method helps ensure that every line of source code has been executed and tested.
  • Decision coverage: It ensures that every decision (true or false) in the source code has been executed and tested.
  • Path coverage: Verify that all possible routes have been tested through a given part of the code.

52) What is Baseline Testing?

A Baseline testing is a series of tests that collect performance information. Information collected can also be used to enhance the performance and capabilities of the application by making changes based on the results. During baseline testing, the application’s performance is compared with its previous performance.

53) What is System Level Testing?

Testing the entire computer system across all the modules is called System-level Testing. This testing method includes Functional as well as Structural Testing.

54) What is Bucket Testing?

Bucket testing is also called A/B Testing. It is mainly used to study the impact of various product designs on website metrics. In this testing method, two simultaneous versions run on a single or a set of web pages, which helps you measure the difference in click rates, interface, and traffic.

Software Testing Interview Questions and Answers for 5+ Years Experienced

55) What N+1 testing is?

The variation of regression testing is represented as N+1. It is performed in multiple cycles in which errors found in test cycle ‘N’ are resolved and retested in test cycle N+1. This process continues until there are no errors found.

56) What is the meaning of bottom-up Testing?

In bottom-up Testing, a method is, the lowest level components are tested first, and then the higher level of components tested. It is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.

57) What is Risk-based Testing?

Risk-based Testing is an approach to creating a Test Strategy based on prioritizing tests by risk. The basis of the approach is a detailed risk analysis and prioritizing of risks.

58) What are the different phases of a formal review?

Formal review process consists of six steps:

  1. Planning
  2. Kick-off
  3. Preparation
  4. Review meeting
  5. Rework
  6. Follow-up

59) What are semi-random test cases?

Semi-random test cases are test cases that perform random test cases and also do equivalence partitioning. It also eliminates redundant test cases, resulting in a semi-random set of tests.

60) What is API testing?

API testing checks the working of the APIs that the software is using. As a software tester, you must write code that makes an API request to the server that provides the API and the required inputs. It collects the output from the response and matches the actual output with the expected output.

61) What is Acceptance testing?

Acceptance Testing is a type of Testing performed by the end-user or the client. It verifies or accepts the software system before moving the software apps to the production environment.

60) What is Globalization Testing?

Globalization is the software testing method of designing a software application to be adapted to numerous languages and regions without any changes.

61) What is GUI Testing?

GUI or Graphical User Interface testing tests the software’s user interface against the provided requirements/HTML designs/ mockups, etc.

62) What is RTM in software testing?

RTM is a short abbreviation of (Requirement Traceability Matrix) It is a tool that helps the tester keep track of requirement coverage over the testing process when the requirement document is received. It is developed based on the requirements and maintained until the specific software system or application is released.

RTM in software testing

63) What is Load Testing?

Load Testing is a performance testing method where the application is executed beyond several load levels. You can monitor the server’s peak performance, response time, etc. Under parallel system load, this method allows you to measure the application’s stability, performance, and integrity.

64) What are the Difference Between SDLC and STLC?

Difference Between SDLC and STLC

Here are some differences between SDLC and STLC

The objective of SDLC life cycle is to complete the successful development of the software, including Testing and other phases. The only objective of the STLC phase is testing.
In SDLC, the BA(Business Analyst) gathers the requirements and create Development Plan In STLC, the QA team analyzes requirements to create a test plan and conduct functional and non-functional documents.
In this life cycle, the development team creates the high and low-level design plans In this life cycle, the test analyst creates the Integration Test Plan
The actual code is developed, and actual work takes place as per the design documents. The software testing team prepares the test environment and executes them

65) What is Installation Testing?

Installation Testing is checking whether we can install the software successfully according to the guidelines given in the installation document.

66) What is Interface Testing?

Interface testing checks whether the individual modules communicate correctly according to given specifications. It is mainly used to test the user interface of GUI applications.

67) What is the Bing Bang model?

Big bang model focuses on software development and coding resources with little or no planning. In this model, the requirements are understood and implemented when they come. This software model works best for small projects with smaller development teams.

68) What are the common scenarios where automated Testing is better than manual Testing?

You can select automated Testing over manual Testing in the following conditions:

  • You have to test cases repeatedly for a long duration of time.
  • It is necessary to perform regression, performance, and load tests.
  • You want to record the testing process.
  • When you have minimal time to complete the testing phase
  • You are executing tests in a standard runtime environment
  • Manual Testing becomes very time-consuming and redundant when there are multiple and quick deployments for the product.

69) What is Client-Server testing?

A client-server application is the one where the application itself gets installed on a server where the application EXE file is loaded on all client machines. This environment is widely used in Intranet networks.

70) What is Unit Testing?

Unit Testing is a kind of software testing when individual units or components of a software are tested. This type of Testing is conducted to check whether the source code’s modules are working correctly.

Unit Testing

71) What is the role of Usability testing in Web testing?

In web testing, Usability testing plays a vital role. It is well known that usability testing means determining how an end-user can easily access the application without any programming language knowledge.

72) What basis can you arrive at for an estimation for your project?

To estimate any project, you need to consider the following points:

  • Divide the entire project into the minor tasks
  • Allocate each task to team members
  • It helps you to estimate the effort required to complete each task
  • Validate the estimation

73) What is a Critical Bug?

A Critical bug means a large piece of functionality or significant system component is broken, and there is no workaround left to move further.

For example, we cannot test the other modules due to a bug in one module that has blocked the Testing of the other modules. Bugs that affect the customer’s business are considered critical.

74) What is Bug Leakage?

The testing team missed a bug while Testing, and the build was released to Production. If the end-user or customer found the bug (which was missed by the software testing team), it is known as Bug Leakage.

75) What is Error Seeding?

It is a method of adding known errors in a program that helps you identify the error detection rate. It helps in estimating the tester’s skills of finding bugs.

76) What is the SPICE in software testing?

SPICE is a short form of Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination. It is a standard framework for assessing the efficiency and effectiveness of the development process.

77) What is Object Repository?

Object Repository is a collection of web elements and their locators that belong to the Application Under Test (AUT). QAs maintain all element locators in a separate file called a property file (. properties) in Selenium. During the execution stage, it enables you to identify objects between the test script and the application.

78) What is a Bug report?

In the software testing process, the software tester records their finding, observations, findings, and other helpful information to the developers or the management. This data is part of the test record known as a bug report.

Bug report provides the following advantages:

  • Understand the problem
  • Steps to reproduce this problem
  • The environment and the specific condition under the Test happen
  • The resolution if/ and when the developers fix the problem

79) What is meant by Error Guessing in Software Testing?

Error guessing is a test case designing method similar to error seeding. In this testing method, testers design test cases by guessing the possible errors which might occur in the software application.

80) What is Showstopper Defect?

It is a defect that does not allow the user to move further in the application. It’s almost like a crash.

For example, ensure that in one software application login button is not working even if you have a valid username and password; you cannot move further because your login button is not functioning.

81) What is a Bug Bounty?

A bug bounty program helps an organization reward someone who finds errors in their software and reports them. It is a concept which is which was existed for a long. The internet was created.

Many companies started to understand how expensive it is to hire experts for penetration testing every time they want to search for vulnerabilities in their system or application.

82) What is State Transition?

State transition testing helps your test cases from an application where we need to test different system transitions. We can apply this method when an application gives a distinct output for the same input, depending on what happened in the earlier state.

83) What do you mean by Defect Triage?

Defect triage is a method that helps you find defects prioritized depending on different characteristics like risk, severity and the amount of time it should take to fix the problem. Various stakeholders are involved, such as the development team, testing team, project manager, etc.

84) What is Defect Removal Efficiency?

The Defect Removal Efficiency is a testing metric that indicates how effectively the development team can fix errors and issues before the product’s release. It helps you to measure defects’ ratio to the number of found issues. For example, if there were 100 discovered during the Testing and 80 were fixed, the DRE will be 100/80 = 1.25%.

85) What is Soak Testing?

Running a system at a very high load for an extended period to identify performance problems is called Soak Testing.

86) What is Pesticide Paradox?

In software testing, the Pesticide Paradox occurs when repetitive test cases do not reveal new bugs. You can overcome this Pesticide Paradox as it is essential to review the test cases we can regularly and add or update them to find more defects.