• Home
  • Testing
  • SAP
  • Web
  • Must Learn!
  • Big Data
  • Live Projects
  • Blog

What is OOPS?

Object Oriented Programming is a programming concept that works on the principle that objects are the most important part of your program. It allows users create the objects that they want and then create methods to handle those objects. Manipulating these objects to get results is the goal of Object Oriented Programming.

Object Oriented Programming popularly known as OOP, is used in a modern programming language like Java

Core OOPS concepts are

1) Class
The class is a group of similar entities. It is only an logical component and not the physical entity. For example, if you had a class called “Expensive Cars” it could have objects like Mercedes, BMW, Toyota, etc. Its properties(data) can be price or speed of these cars. While the methods may be performed with these cars are driving, reverse, braking etc.

2) Object

An object can be defined as an instance of a class, and there can be multiple instances of an object in a program. An Object contains both the data and the function, which operates on the data. For example - chair, bike, marker, pen, table, car, etc.

3) Inheritance

Inheritance is an OOPS concept in which one object acquires the properties and behaviors of the parent object. It’s creating a parent-child relationship between two classes. It offers robust and natural mechanism for organizing and structure of any software.

4) Polymorphism

Polymorphism refers to the ability of a variable, object or function to take on multiple forms. For example, in English, the verb “run” has a different meaning if you use it with “a laptop,” “a foot race, and ”business.&rdquo Here, we understand the meaning of “run” based on the other words used along with it.The same also applied to Polymorphism.

5) Abstraction

An abstraction is an act of representing essential features without including background details. It is a technique of creating a new data type that is suited for a specific application. For example, while driving a car, you do not have to be concerned with its internal working. Here you just need to concern about parts like steering wheel, Gears, accelerator, etc.

6) Encapsulation

Encapsulation is an OOP technique of wrapping the data and code. In this OOPS concept, the variables of a class are always hidden from other classes. It can only be accessed using the methods of their current class. For example - in school, a student cannot exist without a class.

7) Association

Association is a relationship between two objects. It defines the diversity between objects. In this OOP concept, all object have their separate lifecycle, and there is no owner. For example, many students can associate with one teacher while one student can also associate with multiple teachers.

8) Aggregation

In this technique, all objects have their separate lifecycle. However, there is ownership such that child object can’t belong to another parent object. For example consider class/objects department and teacher. Here, a single teacher can’t belong to multiple departments, but even if we delete the department, the teacher object will never be destroyed.

9) Composition

A composition is a specialized form of Aggregation. It is also called "death" relationship. Child objects do not have their lifecycle so when parent object deletes all child object will also delete automatically. For that, let’s take an example of House and rooms. Any house can have several rooms. One room can’t become part of two different houses. So, if you delete the house room will also be deleted.

Advantages of OOPS:

  • OOP offers easy to understand and a clear modular structure for programs.
  • Objects created for Object-Oriented Programs can be reused in other programs. Thus it saves significant development cost.
  • Large programs are difficult to write, but if the development and designing team follow OOPS concept then they can better design with minimum flaws.
  • It also enhances program modularity because every object exists independently.

Comparison of OOPS with other programming styles with help of an Example

Let's understand with example wow OOPs is different than other orogramming approaches.

Programming languages can be classified into 3 primary types

  1. Unstructured Programming Languages: The most primitive of all programming languages having sequentially flow of control. Code is repeated through out the program
  2. Structured Programming Languages: Has non-sequentially flow of control. Use of functions allows for re-use of code.
  3. Object Oriented Programming: Combines Data & Action Together.


Please be patient. The Video will load in some time. If you still face issue viewing video click here


Let's understand these 3 types with an example.

Suppose you want to create a Banking Software with functions like

  1. Deposit
  2. Withdraw
  3. Show Balance

Unstructured Programming Languages

The earliest of all programming language were unstructured programming language. A very elementary code of banking application in unstructured Programming language will have two variables of one account number and another for account balance

int account_number=20;
int account_balace=100;

Suppose deposit of 100 dollars is made.

account_balance=account_balance+100

Next you need to display account balance.

printf(“Account Number=%d,account_number)
printf(“Account Number=%d,account_balance)

Now the amount of 50 dollars is withdrawn.

account_balance=account_blance-50

Again, you need to display the account balance.

printf(“Account Number=%d,account_number)
printf(“Account Number=%d,account_balance)

For any further deposit or withdrawal operation – you will code repeat the same lines again and again.

Structured Programming

With the arrival of Structured programming repeated lines on the code were put into structures such as functions or methods. Whenever needed, a simple call to the function is made.

Object-Oriented Programming

In our program, we are dealing with data or performing specific operations on the data.

In fact, having data and performing certain operation on that data is very basic characteristic in any software programme.

Experts in Software Programming thought of combining the Data and Operations. Therefore, the birth of Object Oriented Programming which is commonly called OOPS.

The same code in OOPS will have same data and some action performed on that data.

Class Account{
	int account_number;
	int account_balance;
public void showdata(){
	system.out.print\n(“Account Number”+account_number)
	system.outprint\n(“Account Balance”+ account_balance)
}
}

By combining data and action, we will get many advantages over structural programming viz,

  • Abstraction
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism

They are dicussed in greater details in succeeding tutorials

 

YOU MIGHT LIKE: