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With time old programming languages become obsolete while new programming languages are launched, but they never gain traction. A common question amongst beginners (and coders alike) is the programming language they should invest learning in, that is in demand, stable outlook, and plenty of jobs.

Here, is a list of top 10 languages that you should learn -

1) Python

Created: Python language developed by Guido van Rossum. It was first released in 1991.

Pros:

  • Supports multiple systems and platforms
  • Object-Oriented Programming (OOPs) driven.
  • Helps to improve Programmer's Productivity
  • Allows you to scale even the most complex applications with ease
  • Extensive Support Libraries

Cons:

  • Note ideal for Mobile Computing
  • Python's database access layer is bit underdeveloped and primitive.

Usage/Application: Web and Internet Development, Scientific and Numeric applications, Desktop GUIs, Business applications. It is widely used in AI and Machine Learning space.

Salary: An average salary for any Python developer in United State is $114,383 per year.

Learning Difficulty: Easy

Reason Selected: Machine Learning, AI, and Data Science are emerging fields and Python is a staple programming language in such software programs.

2) Java

Created: James Gosling primarily designed Java at Sun Microsystems in the year 1996

Pro.

  • Object- Oriented language
  • Java offers APIs for different activities like Database connection, networking, XML parsing, utilities, etc.
  • Powerful open source Rapid Development tools
  • A large number of open source libraries

Cons.

  • Memory management in Java is quite expensive
  • The absence of templates can limit you to create high-quality data structures.

Usage/Application: Java mostly used for developing Android apps, web apps, and Big data.

Salary: An average salary for any Java developer in United State is $101,013 per year.

Learning difficulty: Learning Java is simple and easy.

Reason Selected: Java has wide and growing adoption. There is and will never be a shortage of jobs requiring Java Skills.

3) R

Created: R was designed by Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka at the University of Auckland. This project was conceived in 1992, but it's initial version released in 1995 and a stable beta version in 2000.

Pros:

  • R is a comprehensive statistical analysis language which encourages you to develop new ideas
  • As a statistical language which is considered to be very easy to code
  • R is open-source software. Therefore, anyone can use and change it
  • R is good for GNU/Linux and Microsoft Windows.
  • R is cross-platform which means it can seamlessly run on different operating systems.

Cons:

  • In R, quality of some packages is not up to the mark
  • R does not have the best memory management. Therefore, it may consume all available memory.

Usage/Application: Data Science projects, Statistical computing, Machine learning

Salary: An average wage for any R developer ranges from approximately $90,042 to $136,616 per year

Learning Difficulty: Hard

Reason Selected: Data Sciences is a booming field and R is primarily used for Data Analysis.

4) Javascript

Created: JavaScript was earlier called LiveScript when it first shipped in with Netscape Navigator 2.0 in September 1995. Later, it was renamed as a JavaScript.

Pros:

  • Client-side JavaScript is very fast as it can be run quickly in the client-side browser
  • JavaScript is relatively simple to learn.
  • It can work smoothly with other languages and can be used in a huge variety of applications.
  • Grease monkey support to write snippets of JavaScript which can execute on specific web pages

Cons:

  • JavaScript only allows single inheritance, so multiple inheritances are not possible
  • No copy or equal method is available in JavaScript.
  • JavaScript interpreted differently by different browsers.

Usage/ Applications: JavaScript usage include web/mobile app development, game development, and desktop app development.

Salary: An average wage for Javascript developer in the United States is around $110,981 per year

Learning Difficulty: Easy

Reason Selected: With NodeJS JavaScript now supports Server-Side Scripting as well. JavaScript is an indispensable language there will always be a need for JS skills.

5) Swift

Created: Swift was developed by Apple in July 2010 so that iOS developers do not need to work with Objective-C.

Pros:

  • The Swift program codes are near to natural English, so it is easy to read
  • Easy to add new features to this language which makes swift high- level language
  • The language does not have long code line.
  • Automatic Memory Management feature prevents the memory leaks.

Cons:

  • With the continues updating of swift versions of Apple, Swift is somewhat unstable
  • As it is a new programming language the pool of Swift developers is very limited

Usage applications:

Swift is specially designed language which works with Apple's Cocoa and Cocoa Touch frameworks to create all types of iOS apps.

Salary: An average salary for iOS developer in the United States is around $130,801 per year

Learning difficulty: Easy

Reason Selected: Apple! Should we say more?

6) C++

Created:

C++ is a programming language that was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1983.

Pros:

  • It is a popular language, and thus, there are many compilers and libraries
  • Other programming languages like C, C#, and Java have very similar syntax to C++, make it easy to learn for everyone who knows C++.
  • No garbage collector is running in the background.

Cons

  • The syntax is complex, and the standard library is small, making this language very difficult to learn for the beginner programmer.
  • C++ program can't support garbage collection or Dynamic Memory Allocation
  • The object orientation system in C++ is unnecessarily basic compared to other languages.

Usage applications: C++ is widely used in Game Development, Advance Computations, and Graphics Compilers

Salary:

The average salary of C++ developers in the United States is $113,865 per year.

Learning Difficulty: Hard

Reason Selected: C++ is robust language and is widely used in diverse fields. Will never go out of fashion

7) C#

Year Created:

C# is a computer programming language. It's the first version released in 2001.

Pros:

  • C# uses almost similar syntax which follows by C so it easy to understand for those who know C language
  • Easy Integration with Windows
  • Fully integrated with the .NET library which provides access to a repository of functionality and support.
  • Safer than its namesakes (C/++) as pointer types are not permitted

Cons:

  • It allows pointers in 'unsafe' blocks

Usage applications: Widely used in Enterprise Cross-Applications Development, Web Applications

Salary:

The average salary for "C# developer" ranges from $66,493 per year to $101,775 per year

Learning Difficulty: Hard

Reason Selected: Widely used in Enterprise software and the skill is in demand.

8) PHP

Year Created:

Rasmus Lerdorf created PHP in 1994

Pros:

  • Running with PHP is simple
  • Functional and Object-Oriented Programming
  • Large Open Source Software Community
  • A reasonably good system of automation tools available for testing and deploying

Cons:

  • Error handling facility is poor as PHP lacks debugging tool
  • PHP is not secure as it is one of the open source languages
  • Developing a website with PHP Web Development is slower than other programming languages.

Usage applications: Web Applications, Content Management Systems, eCommerce Applications

Salary:

The average salary for a PHP Developer in the US is $84,727 per year

Learning Difficulty: Easy

Reason Selected: Most popular scripting language. WordPress, Facebook all created using PHP. Never a shortage of PHP jobs.

9) SQL

Created: SQL was developed at IBM by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce. This language was made available publicly in 1979.

Pros:

  • Powerful query language
  • Optimised for large numbers of table rows
  • Fast for searching and querying of data
  • High availability and consistency of data
  • Fast for retrieving data from multiple tables

Cons:

  • Difficult to convert data from Objects into database tables
  • It can only run on the single server, so increasing speed means upgrading hardware.
  • As SQL databases run on a single server so in case if the server stop working, then the database shouldn't be accessed

Usage applications: Used in Any Database

Salary: The average salary earned by SQL Developer is $84,792 per year in the United States

Learning Difficulty: Easy

Reason Selected: You need to know database and SQL irrespective of what profile/language chose as a software developer.

10) Go

Created: Go language which is also known as golang is developed at Google in 2009 by Robert Griesemer, Ken Thompson, and Rob Pike.

Pros:

  • Go is a really fast language as it is compiled to machine code
  • Its syntax is small compared to other languages, and it's easy to learn.
  • Offers standard library to provide handy built-in functions for working with primitive types
  • Go makes current programming easy.

Cons:

  • Poor Library Support
  • Interfaces Are Implicit
  • Fractured Dependency Management

Usage applications: Console utilities, GUI applications, and web applications

Salary:

The average salary earned by GO Developer is $94,082 per year in the United States

Learning Difficulty: Difficult

Reason Selected: Upcoming language from Google.

 

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