What is C programming language?
C is middle-level programming language which was developed at Bell Lab in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie. C language combines the features of Low level as well as High-level Language. Hence its considered a middle-level Language.
C is a high-level classical type programming language that allows you to develop firmware and portable applications. The C language was developed with an objective of writing system software. It is an ideal language for developing firmware systems.
What is C++ programming language?
C++ is a computer programming language that contains the feature of C programming language as well as Simula67( a first object Oriented language). C++ introduced the concept of Class and Objects.
It encapsulates high and low-level language features. So, it is seen as an intermediate level language. Earlier it was called "C with classes" as it had all the properties of the C language.
C Vs. C++: Key Differences
|Basis of distinction||C||C++|
|Programming type||It is a Procedural Oriented language.||It is an Object-Oriented Programming language.|
|Approach||C language follows Top Down programming approach||C++ follow bottom-up programming approach.|
|File extension||The file extension of a C program is .c||The file extension of a c+ + program language is.cpp|
|Program division||In C programming language, a big program code is divided into small pieces which is called functions.||In C++ programming language, a big program code is divided into Objects and Classes.|
|Structure||Structure in C not provide the feature of function declaration.||Structure in C++ provides the feature of declaring a function as a member function of the structure.|
|Inline function||It does not allow inline function.||It supports inline function.|
|Standard I/O operations||In C scan and printf are used for the standard input and output||In C++ cin» and cout« are given for standard input and output operations. |
|Data Security||In C language the data is not secured.||Data is secure, so it can't be accessed by external functions. (Using Encapsulation concept of OOPs)|
|Ease of Coding||C is an older programming language that is described as Hands-on. In this language, you must tell the program to do everything. Moreover, this language will let you do almost anything.||C++ is an extension language of C. It allows for the highly controlled object-oriented code.|
|Compatibility with other languages||C is not compatible with another language.||C++ is compatible with the other generic programming languages.|
|Pointer||C supports only Pointers.||C++ supports both pointers and references.|
|Variable||In C, the variable should be defined at the beginning of the program.||C++ allows you to declare variables anywhere in the function.|
|Point of Focus||C focuses on the steps or procedures that are followed to solve a problem.||C++ emphasizes the objects and not the steps or procedures. It has higher abstraction level.|
|Function Overloading||C does not allow you to use function overloading.||C++ allows you to use function overloading.|
|Data Types||C language does not allows you to declare String or Boolean data types. It supports built-in and primitive data types.||C++ supports String and Boolean data types.|
|Exception Handling||C does not support Exception Handling. However, it can be performed using some workarounds.||C++ supports Exception handling. Moreover, this operation can be performed using try and catch block.|
|Functions||Does not allows functions with default arrangements||Allow functions with default arrangements.|
|Namespace||It is absent in C language.||It is present in the C++ language.|
|Source Code||Free-format program source code.||Originally developed from the C programming language.|
|Relationship||C is a subset of C++. It cannot run C++ code.||C++ is a superset of C. C++ can run most of C code while C cannot run C++ code.|
|Driven by||Function-driven language||Object-driven language|
|Focus||Focuses on method or process instead of data.||Focuses on data instead of method or procedure.|
|Encapsulation||Does not support encapsulation. As Data and functions are separate and free entities.||Supports encapsulation. Data and functions are encapsulated together as an object.|
|Information hiding||C does not support information hiding. In this language, data are free entities and can be changed outside code.||Encapsulation hides the data. So that data structures and operators are used as per intention.|
|Memory management||C provide malloc() and calloc() functions for dynamic memory allocation.||C++ provides a new operator for this purpose.|
|Data Types||Supports built-in data types.||Supports built-in & user-defined data types.|
|Global Variables||Allows Multiple Declaration of global variables.||Multiple Declaration of global variables are not allowed.|
|Concept of Mapping||The mapping between Data and Function is very complicated.||The mapping between Data and Function can be easily established using "Classes and Objects."|
|Inheritance||Inheritance is not supported C||Inheritance is possible in C++ language.|
|Default header file||C used stdio.h header file.||C++ uses iosteam.h as default header file.|
|Virtual function||The concept of virtual Functions are present in C.||The concept of virtual Function is not used in C++.|
|Keywords||Contain 32 keywords.||Contains 52 keywords.|
|Polymorphism||In C. Polymorphism is not possible||The concept of polymorphism is used in C++. Polymorphism is one of the most Important Features of OOPS.|
|GUI programming||C language offers GTK tool for GUI programming||C++ supports Qt tools for GUIprogramming|
- C is a Procedural Oriented language, whereas C++ is an Object-Oriented Programming language.
- C supports only Pointers whereas C++ supports both pointers and references.
- C does not allow you to use function overloading whereas C++ allows you to use function overloading.
- C supports built-in data types whereas C++ supports built-in as well as user-defined data types.
- C language follows the Top-Down programming approach whereas C++ follows a bottom-up programming approach.
- C scan and printf are used for the standard input and output while in C++, cin and cout are given for standard input and output operations.