C is a programming language that was developed at Bell Lab in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie. The C language was developed with an objective of writing system software. It is an ideal language for developing firmware systems.
C language combines the features of Low level as well as High-level Language. Hence it's considered a middle-level Language.
In this tutorial you will learn,
- What is C?
- What is Java?
- History of C language
- History of Java
- Features of C
- Features of Java
- Application of C
- Applications of Java
- C vs. Java
- Advantages of C
- Advantages of Java
- Disadvantage of C
- Disadvantage of Java
Java is a multi-platform, object-oriented, and network-centric programming language. It is among the most used programming language. Java is also used as a computing platform, and it was first released by Sun Microsystem in 1995. It was later acquired by Oracle Corporation.
Here, are important landmarks from the history of C language:
- In 1967, a new computer programming language was announced called 'BCPL,' which stands for Basic Combined Programming Language.
- In 1970 a new programming language called 'B' was introduced by Ken Thompson that contained multiple features of 'BCPL'.
- In 1972, after B language a great computer scientist Dennis Ritchie created a new programming language called 'C' at the Bell Laboratories.
- American National Standards Institute (ANSI) defined a commercial standard for 'C' language in 1989.
- It was approved by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in 1990
Here, are important landmarks from the history of the Java language:
- The Java language was initially called OAK. Originally, it was developed for handling portable devices and set-top boxes. Oak was a massive failure.
- In 1995, Sun changed the name to "Java" and modified the language to take advantage of the burgeoning www (World Wide Web) development business.
- Later, in 2009, Oracle Corporation acquired Sun Microsystems and took ownership of three key Sun software assets: Java, MySQL, and Solaris.
Here, are important features of C
- Easy to learn
- Structured language
- It produces efficient programs
- C is a basic and core computer programming language. If anyone knows C learning other programs becomes easier.
- Portable and extensible programming language.
- Small in size because it has only 32 keywords, this makes it easy to learn.
Here are the important features of the Java language.
- Write code once and run it on almost any computing platform
- It is designed for building object-oriented applications.
- It is a multithreaded language with automatic memory management.
- Facilitates distributed computing as its network-centric.
Here, are important applications of C language:
- Contain basic feature of all programming language
- C can be learned to build programming skills
- Very useful for hardware-dependent programming
- It is used for compiler production.
- 'C' language is used in embedded systems.
- Use for developing an operating system.
- It is used to develop databases. MySQL is the most popular database software that is built using 'C'.
- It is used for developing system applications.
- It is used for developing desktop applications.
- C is also used for developing browsers and their extensions. For example, Google's Chromium.
- Used popularly in IoT applications.
Here, are important applications of Java language:
- Android apps
- Enterprise software
- Scientific computing applications
- Big data Analytics
- Java programming of hardware devices
- Used for server-side technologies like Apache, JBoss, GlassFish, etc.
Here, are important differences between C and Java
|C is a Procedural Programming Language.||Java is an Object-Oriented language.|
|C was developed by Dennis M. Ritchie in 1972.||Java language was developed by James Gosling in 1995.|
|It is a middle-level language as it is binding the gaps between machine level and high-level languages.||It is a high-level language because the translation of code is taken place into machine language, which uses compiler or interpreter.|
|In the C declaration variable are declared at the beginning of the block.||In Java, you can declare a variable anywhere.|
|Free is a variable used for freeing the memory in C.||A compiler will free up the memory by calling the garbage collector.|
|C does not support threading.||Java has a feature of threading.|
|C support pointers.||Java does not support pointers.|
|Memory allocation can be done by malloc.||Memory allocation can be done by a new keyword.|
|Garbage collector needs to manage manually.||In Java, it is automatically managed by a garbage collector|
|C does not have a feature of overloading functionality.||Java supports method overloading.|
|C offers support for call by value and call by reference.||Java only supports a call by value.|
|The average salary for a C Developer is $104,051 per year in the United States.||The average salary for a java developer is $104,710 per year.|
|TIOBE rating is 2||TIOBE rating is 1|
Here, are pros/benefits of C language:
- Procedure oriented language
- Speed of compilation
- Program code is secured
- C program can easily run on another computer without any change or by doing a little change.
- Language code or syntax of C is easy to understand. It uses a keyword like if, else, switch, etc.
- The C compiler is fast compared to other high language compilers.
- It is more efficient than unstructured code because it creates of minimized branching of the code.
- Maintenance of the C code is easy due to the readability of the code.
- Building block for many other programming languages
- Powerful and efficient language
- Portable language
- Built-in functions
- Quality to extend itself
- Structured programming language
- Middle-level language
- Easy Implementation of algorithms and data structures
Here, are benefits/ pros of using Java
- Detailed documentation is available.
- A large pool of skilled developers available
- A huge array of 3rd party libraries
- It allows you to form standard programs and reusable code.
- It is a multi-threaded environment that allows you to perform many tasks at the same time in a program.
- Excellent performance
- Easy to navigate libraries
- C does not offer the concept of OOPs
- In the C programming language, the errors or the bugs not detected after each line of code.
- You can't define a variable with the same name in C.
- It is a small and core machine language that offers minimum data hiding and exclusive visibility that affects the security of this language.
- C doesn't have the concept of namespace , constructor, and destructor.
- Run time type checking is Not Available
Here, are cons/drawback of using Java language
- JIT compiler makes the program comparatively slow.
- Java has high memory and processing requirements. Therefore, hardware cost increases.
- It does not provide support for low-level programming constructs like pointers.
- You don't have any control over garbage collection as Java does not offer functions like delete(), free().
- C is a Procedural Programming Language whereas Java is an Object-Oriented language.
- C is middle level language while Java is high level language.
- C does not support threading on the other hand Java has a feature of threading.
- C supports pointers but Java does not support pointers.
- In C garbage collection needs to managed manually while in Java, it is automatically managed by a garbage collector
- C offers support for call by value and call by reference but Java only supports call by value.
- In C language memory allocation can be done by malloc while in Java memory allocation can be done by the new keyword.