What is C?

C is a programming language that was developed at Bell Lab in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie. The C language was developed with an objective of writing system software. It is an ideal language for developing firmware systems.

C language combines the features of Low level as well as High-level Language. Hence it's considered a middle-level Language.

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What is Java?

Java is a multi-platform, object-oriented, and network-centric programming language. It is among the most used programming language. Java is also used as a computing platform, and it was first released by Sun Microsystem in 1995. It was later acquired by Oracle Corporation.

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KEY DIFFERENCES:

  • C is a Procedural Programming Language whereas Java is an Object-Oriented language.
  • C is middle level language while Java is high level language.
  • C does not support threading on the other hand Java has a feature of threading.
  • C supports pointers but Java does not support pointers.
  • In C garbage collection needs to managed manually while in Java, it is automatically managed by a garbage collector
  • C offers support for call by value and call by reference but Java only supports call by value.
  • In C language memory allocation can be done by malloc while in Java memory allocation can be done by the new keyword.

History of C language

Here, are important landmarks from the history of C language:

  • In 1967, a new computer programming language was announced called 'BCPL,' which stands for Basic Combined Programming Language.
  • In 1970 a new programming language called 'B' was introduced by Ken Thompson that contained multiple features of 'BCPL'.
  • In 1972, after B language a great computer scientist Dennis Ritchie created a new programming language called 'C' at the Bell Laboratories.
  • American National Standards Institute (ANSI) defined a commercial standard for 'C' language in 1989.
  • It was approved by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in 1990

History of Java

Here, are important landmarks from the history of the Java language:

  • The Java language was initially called OAK. Originally, it was developed for handling portable devices and set-top boxes. Oak was a massive failure.
  • In 1995, Sun changed the name to "Java" and modified the language to take advantage of the burgeoning www (World Wide Web) development business.
  • Later, in 2009, Oracle Corporation acquired Sun Microsystems and took ownership of three key Sun software assets: Java, MySQL, and Solaris.
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Features of C

Here, are important features of C

  • Easy to learn
  • Structured language
  • It produces efficient programs
  • C is a basic and core computer programming language. If anyone knows C learning other programs becomes easier.
  • Portable and extensible programming language.
  • Small in size because it has only 32 keywords, this makes it easy to learn.

Features of Java

Here are the important features of the Java language.

  • Write code once and run it on almost any computing platform
  • It is designed for building object-oriented applications.
  • It is a multithreaded language with automatic memory management.
  • Facilitates distributed computing as its network-centric.

Application of C

Here, are important applications of C language:

  • Contain basic feature of all programming language
  • C can be learned to build programming skills
  • Very useful for hardware-dependent programming
  • It is used for compiler production.
  • 'C' language is used in embedded systems.
  • Use for developing an operating system.
  • It is used to develop databases. MySQL is the most popular database software that is built using 'C'.
  • It is used for developing system applications.
  • It is used for developing desktop applications.
  • C is also used for developing browsers and their extensions. For example, Google's Chromium.
  • Used popularly in IoT applications.

Applications of Java

Here, are important applications of Java language:

  • Android apps
  • Enterprise software
  • Scientific computing applications
  • Big data Analytics
  • Java programming of hardware devices
  • Used for server-side technologies like Apache, JBoss, GlassFish, etc.

C vs. Java

Here, are important differences between C and Java

C Java
C is a Procedural Programming Language. Java is an Object-Oriented language.
C was developed by Dennis M. Ritchie in 1972. Java language was developed by James Gosling in 1995.
It is a middle-level language as it is binding the gaps between machine level and high-level languages. It is a high-level language because the translation of code is taken place into machine language, which uses compiler or interpreter.
In the C declaration variable are declared at the beginning of the block. In Java, you can declare a variable anywhere.
Free is a variable used for freeing the memory in C. A compiler will free up the memory by calling the garbage collector.
C does not support threading. Java has a feature of threading.
C support pointers. Java does not support pointers.
Memory allocation can be done by malloc. Memory allocation can be done by a new keyword.
Garbage collector needs to manage manually. In Java, it is automatically managed by a garbage collector
C does not have a feature of overloading functionality. Java supports method overloading.
C offers support for call by value and call by reference. Java only supports a call by value.
The average salary for a C Developer is $104,051 per year in the United States. The average salary for a java developer is $104,710 per year.
TIOBE rating is 2 TIOBE rating is 1

Advantages of C

Here, are pros/benefits of C language:

  • Procedure oriented language
  • Speed of compilation
  • Program code is secured
  • C program can easily run on another computer without any change or by doing a little change.
  • Language code or syntax of C is easy to understand. It uses a keyword like if, else, switch, etc.
  • The C compiler is fast compared to other high language compilers.
  • It is more efficient than unstructured code because it creates of minimized branching of the code.
  • Maintenance of the C code is easy due to the readability of the code.
  • Building block for many other programming languages
  • Powerful and efficient language
  • Portable language
  • Built-in functions
  • Quality to extend itself
  • Structured programming language
  • Middle-level language
  • Easy Implementation of algorithms and data structures

Advantages of Java

Here, are benefits/ pros of using Java

  • Detailed documentation is available.
  • A large pool of skilled developers available
  • A huge array of 3rd party libraries
  • It allows you to form standard programs and reusable code.
  • It is a multi-threaded environment that allows you to perform many tasks at the same time in a program.
  • Excellent performance
  • Easy to navigate libraries

Disadvantage of C

  • C does not offer the concept of OOPs
  • In the C programming language, the errors or the bugs not detected after each line of code.
  • You can't define a variable with the same name in C.
  • It is a small and core machine language that offers minimum data hiding and exclusive visibility that affects the security of this language.
  • C doesn't have the concept of namespace , constructor, and destructor.
  • Run time type checking is Not Available

Disadvantage of Java

Here, are cons/drawback of using Java language

  • JIT compiler makes the program comparatively slow.
  • Java has high memory and processing requirements. Therefore, hardware cost increases.
  • It does not provide support for low-level programming constructs like pointers.
  • You don't have any control over garbage collection as Java does not offer functions like delete(), free().

 

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