C is a programming language that was developed at Bell Lab in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie. The C language was developed with an objective of writing system software. It is an ideal language for developing firmware systems.
C language combines the features of Low level as well as High-level Language. Hence it's considered a middle-level Language.
Java is a multi-platform, object-oriented, and network-centric programming language. It is among the most used programming language. Java is also used as a computing platform, and it was first released by Sun Microsystem in 1995. It was later acquired by Oracle Corporation.
C is a Procedural Programming Language whereas Java is an Object-Oriented language.
C is middle level language while Java is high level language.
C does not support threading on the other hand Java has a feature of threading.
C supports pointers but Java does not support pointers.
In C garbage collection needs to managed manually while in Java, it is automatically managed by a garbage collector
C offers support for call by value and call by reference but Java only supports call by value.
In C language memory allocation can be done by malloc while in Java memory allocation can be done by the new keyword.
History of C language
Here, are important landmarks from the history of C language:
In 1967, a new computer programming language was announced called 'BCPL,' which stands for Basic Combined Programming Language.
In 1970 a new programming language called 'B' was introduced by Ken Thompson that contained multiple features of 'BCPL'.
In 1972, after B language a great computer scientist Dennis Ritchie created a new programming language called 'C' at the Bell Laboratories.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) defined a commercial standard for 'C' language in 1989.
It was approved by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in 1990
History of Java
Here, are important landmarks from the history of the Java language:
The Java language was initially called OAK. Originally, it was developed for handling portable devices and set-top boxes. Oak was a massive failure.
In 1995, Sun changed the name to "Java" and modified the language to take advantage of the burgeoning www (World Wide Web) development business.
Later, in 2009, Oracle Corporation acquired Sun Microsystems and took ownership of three key Sun software assets: Java, MySQL, and Solaris.
Features of C
Here, are important features of C
Easy to learn
It produces efficient programs
C is a basic and core computer programming language. If anyone knows C learning other programs becomes easier.
Portable and extensible programming language.
Small in size because it has only 32 keywords, this makes it easy to learn.
Features of Java
Here are the important features of the Java language.
Write code once and run it on almost any computing platform
It is designed for building object-oriented applications.
It is a multithreaded language with automatic memory management.
Facilitates distributed computing as its network-centric.
Application of C
Here, are important applications of C language:
Contain basic feature of all programming language
C can be learned to build programming skills
Very useful for hardware-dependent programming
It is used for compiler production.
'C' language is used in embedded systems.
Use for developing an operating system.
It is used to develop databases. MySQL is the most popular database software that is built using 'C'.
It is used for developing system applications.
It is used for developing desktop applications.
C is also used for developing browsers and their extensions. For example, Google's Chromium.
Used popularly in IoT applications.
Applications of Java
Here, are important applications of Java language:
Scientific computing applications
Big data Analytics
Java programming of hardware devices
Used for server-side technologies like Apache, JBoss, GlassFish, etc.
C vs. Java
Here, are important differences between C and Java
C is a Procedural Programming Language.
Java is an Object-Oriented language.
C was developed by Dennis M. Ritchie in 1972.
Java language was developed by James Gosling in 1995.
It is a middle-level language as it is binding the gaps between machine level and high-level languages.
It is a high-level language because the translation of code is taken place into machine language, which uses compiler or interpreter.
In the C declaration variable are declared at the beginning of the block.
In Java, you can declare a variable anywhere.
Free is a variable used for freeing the memory in C.
A compiler will free up the memory by calling the garbage collector.
C does not support threading.
Java has a feature of threading.
C support pointers.
Java does not support pointers.
Memory allocation can be done by malloc.
Memory allocation can be done by a new keyword.
Garbage collector needs to manage manually.
In Java, it is automatically managed by a garbage collector
C does not have a feature of overloading functionality.
Java supports method overloading.
C offers support for call by value and call by reference.
Java only supports a call by value.
The average salary for a C Developer is $104,051 per year in the United States.
The average salary for a java developer is $104,710 per year.
TIOBE rating is 2
TIOBE rating is 1
Advantages of C
Here, are pros/benefits of C language:
Procedure oriented language
Speed of compilation
Program code is secured
C program can easily run on another computer without any change or by doing a little change.
Language code or syntax of C is easy to understand. It uses a keyword like if, else, switch, etc.
The C compiler is fast compared to other high language compilers.
It is more efficient than unstructured code because it creates of minimized branching of the code.
Maintenance of the C code is easy due to the readability of the code.
Building block for many other programming languages
Powerful and efficient language
Quality to extend itself
Structured programming language
Easy Implementation of algorithms and data structures
Advantages of Java
Here, are benefits/ pros of using Java
Detailed documentation is available.
A large pool of skilled developers available
A huge array of 3rd party libraries
It allows you to form standard programs and reusable code.
It is a multi-threaded environment that allows you to perform many tasks at the same time in a program.
Easy to navigate libraries
Disadvantage of C
C does not offer the concept of OOPs
In the C programming language, the errors or the bugs not detected after each line of code.
You can't define a variable with the same name in C.
It is a small and core machine language that offers minimum data hiding and exclusive visibility that affects the security of this language.
C doesn't have the concept of namespace , constructor, and destructor.
Run time type checking is Not Available
Disadvantage of Java
Here, are cons/drawback of using Java language
JIT compiler makes the program comparatively slow.
Java has high memory and processing requirements. Therefore, hardware cost increases.
It does not provide support for low-level programming constructs like pointers.
You don't have any control over garbage collection as Java does not offer functions like delete(), free().