C# Vs. C++: What’s the Difference Between C# and C++?
What is C++?
C++ is a computer programming language that contains the feature of C programming language as well as Simula67( a first object Oriented language). C++ introduced the concept of Class and Objects.
It encapsulates high and low-level language features. So, it is seen as an intermediate level language. Earlier it was called "C with classes" as it had all the properties of the C language.
What is C#?
C-Sharp is an object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft that runs on .Net Framework. It has features like strong typing, imperative, declarative, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming. It was developed by Microsoft within the .NET platform.
The name "C sharp" was inspired by musical notations. Here '#' symbol indicates that the written note must be made a semitone higher in pitch.
History of C++
C++ language was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at AT & T Bell Laboratories. Stroustrup was a strong supporter of C an admirer of Simula67. He wanted to combine the best of both the languages. He was aiming to create a language which supports object-oriented programming features and still retains the power of C. This resulted in C++.
History of C#
Anders Hejlsberg is the key contributor to C# language development. In 1999, he built a team to develop a new language which was then called "Cool.". The project was approved and announced in July 2000 at the .Net Developers Conference. The language was later renamed as C#.
Now in this C# vs C++ tutorial, let's understand the key differences between C Sharp vs C++.
- C++ is a low level programming language that adds object-oriented features to its base language C whereas C# is a high level language.
- C++ compiles down to machine code whereas C# 'compiles' down to CLR (Common Language Runtime), which is interpreted by JIT in ASP.NET.
- C++ is an object-oriented language while C# is considered a component-oriented programming language.
- In C++ you need to manage memory manually whereas C# runs in a virtual machine, which performs memory management automatically.
- In C++ development should follow any specific architecture and must be portable whereas C# development should be simple, modem, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language.
Principles of C++ development
- The program should be simple, object-oriented and easy to understand
- Development should be conducted in the robust and secure environment.
- Code should follow specific architecture and must be portable.
- Code should be easily "interpreted and dynamic "
Principles of C# development
- It should be simple, modem, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language.
- The language and implementations should provide support for software engineering principles
- C# is an ideal choice for building applications for both hosted and embedded systems.
Difference between C++ and C#
Following is the main difference between C# and C++:
|Type of language||C++ is a low level and platform neutral programming language.||C# is a high-level language.|
|Compiling||C++ compiles down to machine code||C# 'compiles' down to CLR (Common Language Runtime), which is interpreted by JIT in ASP.NET|
|Memory management||In C++, you need to manage memory manually if you dynamically allocate object.||C# runs memory management automatically|
|Multiple inheritances||C++ support the multiple inheritances||C# does not support multiple inheritances.|
|Level of difficulty||C++ includes more complex features.||C# doesn't have any complex features. It has a simple hierarchy and quite easy to understand.|
|Default access Specifier||Public in C++ for Struct. Private for classes||Private in C# .net.|
|Platform||C++ is a language that runs on all sorts of platforms. It is also equally popular on Unix and Linux systems.||C#, while standardized, is rarely seen outside windows.|
|Standalone applications||C++ can create standalone applications.||C# can't make a standalone application.|
|Object Oriented||C++ is not a complete object orient language.||C# is a pure object-oriented language.|
|Bound checking||Does not support bound checking of arrays.||Supports bound checking of arrays.|
|Garbage Collection||C++ does not support garbage collection.||C# supports garbage collection.|
|Multiple inheritance||C++ supports multiple inheritance.||C# does not offer multiple class inheritance.|
|Foreach Loop||C++ does not support for each loop.||C# supports for each loop.|
|Use of pointers||You can use pointers anywhere in the program.||You can use pointer only in the unsafe mode.|
|Used for||Widely used in gaming.||C# programming can be used to create Windows, mobile, and console applications.|
|Size of binaries||C++ is much more lightweight.||C# has a lot of overhead and libraries should be included before it will compile.|
|Type of Projects||C++ programmers generally focus on applications that work directly with hardware or that need better performance than other languages can offer.||C# is used for modern app development.|
|Compiler warnings||C++ allows you to do almost anything provided the syntax is right. Therefore, it is flexible language, but you may cause serious damage running OS.||C# is highly protected. as it Compiler will throw errors and warnings in case you inadvertently write code that can cause damage.|
|Compilation result||After compiling, C++ code is converted into machine code.||After compiling, C# code is converted into an intermediate language code.|
|Switch statement||In C++ Switch Statement, the test variable can't be a string.||In a C# switch statement, may or may not be a string.|