What is End to End Testing?
End-to-End Testing is defined as a type Software Testing that not only validates the software system under test but also checks its integration with external interfaces. Hence, the name "End-to-End". The purpose of End-to-End Testing is to exercise a complete production-like scenario.
Along with the software system, it also validates batch/data processing from other upstream/downstream systems.
End to End Testing is usually executed after functional and System Testing.
It uses actual production like data and test environment to simulate real-time settings. End-to-End testing is also called Chain Testing
Why End to End Testing?
Modern software systems are complex and are interconnected with multiple sub-systems
A sub-system may be different from the current system or may be owned by another organization. If anyone of the sub-systems fails, the whole software system could collapse. This is a major risk and can be avoided by End-to-End testing. End-to-End testing verifies the complete system flow. It increases Test coverage of various sub-systems. It helps detect issues with sub-systems and increases confidence in the overall software product.
End to End Testing Process:
The following diagram gives an overview of the End to End testing process.
The chief activities involved in End to End Testing are -
- Study of an end to end testing requirements
- Test Environment setup and hardware/software requirements
- Describe all the systems and its subsystems processes.
- Description of roles and responsibilities for all the systems
- Testing methodology and standards
- End to end requirements tracking and designing of test cases
- Input and output data for each system
How to create End-to-End Test Cases?
End to End Testing Design framework consists of three parts
- Build user functions
- Build Conditions
- Build Test Cases
Build User Functions
Following activities should be done as a part of build user functions:
- List down the features of the system and their interconnected components
- List the input data, action and the output data for each feature or function
- Identify the relationships between the functions
- Determine whether the function can be reusable or independent
For example -Consider a scenario where you login into your bank account and transfer some money to another account from some other bank (3rdparty sub-system)
- Login into the banking system
- Check for the balance amount in the account
- Transfer some amount from your account to some other bank account (3rdparty sub-system)
- Check your latest account balance
- Logout of the application
Build Conditions based on User Function
Following activities are performed as a part of build conditions:
- Building a set of conditions for each user function defined
- Conditions include sequence, timing and data conditions
For example -Checking of more conditions like
- Invalid User Name and Password
- Checking with valid username and password
- Password strength checking
- Checking of error messages
- Check the current balance after 24 hours. (If the transfer is sent to a different bank)
- Check for the error message if the transfer amount is greater than the current balance amount
Build a Test Scenario
Building the Test Scenario for the user function defined
In this case,
- Login into the system
- Check of bank balance amount
- Transfer the bank balance amount
Build Multiple Test cases
Build one or more test cases for each scenario defined. Test cases may include each condition as a single test case.
Metrics for End to End testing:
Following are few of many metrics used for End to End Testing.
- Test Case preparation status: It gives Test Case preparation progress against planned
- Weekly Test Progress- Provides week-wise details of percentage test completion- Failed, not executed & executed against planned for execution tests.
- Defects Status & Details- It gives Percentage of open & closed defects by the week. Also, week-wise defects distribution based on severity and priority
- Environment Availability -Total number of hours "up" / Total number of hours scheduled per day for testing
End to End Testing Vs System Testing
End to End Testing
|Validates the software system as well as interconnected sub-systems||Validates just the software system as per the requirements specifications.|
|It checks the complete end-to-end process flow.||It checks system functionalities and features.|
|All interfaces, backend systems will be considered for testing||Functional and Non-Functional Testing will be considered for testing|
|It's executed once System Testing is completed.||It's executed after Integration Testing.|
|End to End testing involves checking external interfaces which can be complex to automate. Hence Manual Testing is preferred.||Both Manual and Automation can be performed for System Testing|
In Software Engineering, End to End Testing is the process verifying a software system along with its sub-systems. The biggest challenge in this testing is to have enough knowledge of the whole system as well as an interconnected sub-system.