What is Data?
Data is a raw and unorganized fact that required to be processed to make it meaningful. Data can be simple at the same time unorganized unless it is organized. Generally, data comprises facts, observations, perceptions numbers, characters, symbols, image, etc.
Data is always interpreted, by a human or machine, to derive meaning. So, data is meaningless. Data contains numbers, statements, and characters in a raw form.
What is Information?
Information is a set of data which is processed in a meaningful way according to the given requirement. Information is processed, structured, or presented in a given context to make it meaningful and useful.
It is processed data which includes data that possess context, relevance, and purpose. It also involves manipulation of raw data.
Information assigns meaning and improves the reliability of the data. It helps to ensure undesirability and reduces uncertainty. So, when the data is transformed into information, it never has any useless details.
- Data is a raw and unorganized fact that is required to be processed to make it meaningful whereas Information is a set of data that is processed in a meaningful way according to the given requirement.
- Data does not have any specific purpose whereas Information carries a meaning that has been assigned by interpreting data.
- Data alone has no significance while Information is significant by itself.
- Data never depends on Information while Information is dependent on Data.
- Data measured in bits and bytes, on the other hand, Information is measured in meaningful units like time, quantity, etc.
- Data can be structured, tabular data, graph, data tree whereas Information is language, ideas, and thoughts based on the given data.
Data Vs. Information
|Description||Qualitative Or QuantitativeVariables which helps to develop ideas or conclusions.||It is a group of data which carries news and meaning.|
|Etymology||Data comes from a Latin word, datum, which means "To give something." Over a time "data" has become the plural of datum.||Information word has old French and middle English origins. It has referred to the "act of informing.". It is mostly used for education or other known communication.|
|Format||Data is in the form of numbers, letters, or a set of characters.||Ideas and inferences|
|Represented in||It can be structured, tabular data, graph, data tree, etc.||Language, ideas, andthoughts based on the given data.|
|Meaning||Data does not have any specific purpose.||It carries meaning that has been assigned by interpreting data.|
|Interrelation||Information that is collected||Information that is processed.|
|Feature||Data is a single unit and is raw. It alone doesn't have any meaning.||Information is the product and group of data which jointly carry a logical meaning.|
|Dependence||It never depends on Information||It depended on Data.|
|Measuring unit||Measured in bits and bytes.||Measured in meaningful units like time, quantity, etc.|
|Support for Decision making||It can't be used for decision making||It is widely used for decision making.|
|Contains||Unprocessed raw factors||Processed in a meaningful way|
|Knowledge level||It is low-level knowledge.||It is the second level of knowledge.|
|Characteristic||Data is the property of an organization and is not available for sale to the public.||Information is available for sale to the public.|
|Dependency||Data depends upon the sources for collecting data.||Information depends upon data.|
|Example||Ticket sales on a band on tour.||Sales report by region and venue. It gives information which venue is profitable for that business.|
|Significance||Data alone has no signifiance.||Information is significant by itself.|
|Meaning||Data is based on records and observations and, which are stored in computers or remembered by a person.||Information is considered more reliable than data. It helps the researcher to conduct a proper analysis.|
|Usefulness||The data collected by the researcher, may or may not be useful.||Information is useful and valuable as it is readily available to the researcher for use.|
|Dependency||Data is never designed to the specific need of the user.||Information is always specific to the requirements and expectations because all the irrelevant facts and figures are removed, during the transformation process.|
DIKW (Data Information Knowledge Wisdom)
DIKW is the model used for discussion of data, information, knowledge, wisdom and their interrelationships. It represents structural or functional relationships between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom.