Information is a set of data that is processed in a meaningful way according to the given requirement. It is processed, structured, or presented in a given context to make it meaningful and useful.
Information assigns meaning and improves the reliability of the data. It helps to ensure undesirability and reduces uncertainty. Therefore, when the data is transformed into information, it never has any useless details. It includes data that possess context, relevance, and purpose. It also involves the manipulation of raw data which eventually becomes knowledge.
In this tutorial, you will learn:
- What is Information?
- What is Knowledge?
- Characteristics of Information
- Characteristics of Knowledge
- Example of information
- Example of Knowledge
- Difference Between Information and Knowledge
- DIKW (Data Information Knowledge Wisdom)
Knowledge is a combination of information, experience, and insight that helps the individual or the organization. It is linked to doing and implies know-how and understanding. Knowledge is possessed by each individual and is an outcome of his or her experience. It also covers the norms to evaluates new inputs from his surroundings.
- Information is refined data whereas the knowledge is useful information
- The outcome of information is comprehension while the outcome of knowledge is understanding.
- Information improves representation and Knowledge increases consciousness
- Information alone is not sufficient to make any predictions while in knowledge prediction is possible if one possesses the required experience.
- Information is a text that answers the questions a who, when, what, or where while knowledge is a text that answers the questions of why and how.
- Information is easily transferable while to transfer knowledge you require learning.
Here, are important characteristics of the Information:
- The main characteristics of information are accuracy, completeness, relevance, and availability
- Information is said to be facts provided or learned about someone or something
- No defined connection between ideas
- Its availability to the right person at the right time
- Enhance learning
Here are an important characteristic of knowledge:
- Knowledge is accurate as it conveys the true situation.
- It is available in time to make the most appropriate and correct decisions.
- It is portrayed in common, easy to understood formats.
- It provides all the necessary data.
- Meaningful and useful for the decision-making process.
- Involves communication and reception Information
- It reduces uncertainties and estimates to take action
Look at the examples given for data:
- Dog, cat, cow, cockatoo
- 161.2, 175.3, 166.4, 164.7, 169.3
Only when we assign a context or meaning that’s when the data become information. It all becomes meaningful when you are told:
- 4, 8, 12 and 16 are the first four answers in the 4 x table
- Dog, cat, cow is a list of household pets
- 165, 175.2, 186.3, 164.3, 169.3 are the height of 14-year old students.
If you apply this information to gain further knowledge, we could say that:
- 4, 8, 16 and 24 are the first four answers in the 4 x table (because the 4 x table starts at three and goes up in threes the 5 x table must start at five and go up in fives)
- A tiger is not a household pet as it is not on the list, and it lives in the wild forest.
- The tallest student is 186.3cm.
Here are important differences between Information and Knowledge
|Information is refined data||The knowledge is useful information|
|Data and context||Information, experience, and intuition|
|Comprehension is its outcome.||Understanding is its outcome.|
|Easily transferable||To transfer you require learning|
|Improves representation||Increases consciousness|
|All information need not be knowledge.||All knowledge is information.|
|Information can be reproduced.||Knowledge reproduction is not possible.|
|Information alone is not sufficient to make any predictions.||Prediction is possible if one possesses the required knowledge.|
|A flow of meaningful messages||Beliefs and commitments created from these messages|
|A message used to change the receiver’s perception||It contains experiences, values, insights, and contextual information|
|Text that answers the questions a who, when, what, or where.||Text that answers the questions of why and how.|
|The information indicates the organized data about someone or something which is obtained from various sources like the internet, newspaper, television, etc.||Knowledge means the awareness or understanding of the subject obtained from the education or experience of a particular person.|
|Information is a refined form of data that is useful to understand the meaning.||knowledge is the relevant information that helps in drawing conclusions.|
|Processing results allow you to improve the representation and ensures an easy interpretation of the information.||Processing results in increased consciousness, therefore, enhance subject knowledge.|
|Information brings on comprehension of the figure and facts.||Knowledge can lead to an understanding of the subject.|
|The transfer of information is easy using different means. It can be verbal or non-verbal signals.||The transfer of knowledge is difficult, as it requires learning on the part of the receiver.|
DIKW is the model used for discussion of data, information, knowledge, wisdom and their interrelationships. It represents structural or functional relationships between data, information, knowledge, and wisdom.