Within the SAP Quality Management module and for other SAP applications we need to maintain the data pertaining to inspection planning and inspection lot processing.
Before you create an inspection lot and record inspection results, basic SAP master data for inspection planning should be maintained.
Following SAP QM master data should be set up before inspection of any material.
Master Inspection Characteristics (MIC) in SAP QM
Master Inspection characteristics are required to describe the inspection specifications for materials like length, width, viscosity, etc.
We create master inspection characteristics at the plant level to simplify and standardize the inspection planning activities.
It also helps to organize the master inspection characteristics in order to avoid duplicate creation of MIC.
These characteristics can be used in Routings, Master Recipe, Inspection Plan and maintenance task list. We can also create the different versions for the single MIC.
Inspection method and catalog could be attached to inspection characteristics.
The below are the types of Master Inspection characteristics available in SAP.
Quantitative characteristics are used to record the results of the Quantitative inspection.
Values of inspection can be directly feed to these type of characteristics while performing results recording. Characteristics specification limits like Upper Limit, Lower Limit, and central limits can be defined for each inspection characteristics at master level or while creating an inspection plan.
Inspection Method can also be attached to inspection characteristics level.
Qualitative characteristics are used to record the results of Attribute inspection like “Ok” or “Not ok”.
Code groups / Selected sets of Catalog type 1 can be used for recording result against Qualitative inspection characteristics. Appropriate inspection method can be attached to inspection characteristics.
Inspection Methods in SAP
The inspection methods describe the procedures for carrying out inspections.
You can assign an “inspection method” to a master inspection characteristic or directly to an inspection characteristic in an inspection plan.
Inspection method can also be created in one plant, and the same can be used in the inspection plan for another plant by using the original plant of inspection method.
SAP QM Sampling Procedure
The sampling procedure is the procedure by which the sample size for an inspection lot is determined. It can be used in inspection plans.
The sampling procedure can be a fixed sample, percentage sample, 100% or using sampling scheme. Sample scheme is the collection of sampling plans.
A sampling plan defines the sample size based on a specific inspection lot quantity and defines the criteria for determining whether and how a sample is accepted or rejected.
Depending on the business requirement sampling size is determined. For example, if a batch of the drug needs to be tested, depending on the quantity of the drug manufactured, the sampling for inspection is planned.
SAP Inspection Plan
Defining inspection plan is necessary if you want to capture quality result it is used,
- To define inspection methodology, for example,
- Materials to be inspected
- How the inspection of materials need to be taken place
- What characteristics to be inspected, work center and inspection specifications.
- Inspection plans define how a quality inspection of one or multiple materials will be taken place. In the inspection plan, we define thesequence of inspection operations and the range of specifications available for inspecting master inspection characteristics, sampling procedure to calculate the sample size for inspection, Inspection method to inspect the MIC, etc.
- The “status” and “usage” can be maintained for the inspection plan to check whether the plan is active or inactive. We can identify the inspection plan by using group number (client level) and group counter (plant level) generated by the SAP system. Multiple materials can be attached to one plan provided the parameters to be inspected are same.
Quality Info Record in SAP
Quality Info record is maintained for a “material –vendor relationship.” It is used to block the material from procurement through a certain vendor when the quality of the product is compromised supplied by the particular vendor.
In this SAP master, we will maintain the quality system for the combination of vendor and material.
This SAP master will become mandatory only if the QM Procurement key is active in the material master.
When a quotation or purchase order is created, the SAP system checks whether a Q-info record is required and available for the combination of material and vendor.
A check is made to determine whether the purchase order can be released based on the Q-info record.
Quality information record need to be maintained if we would like to use the source inspection functionality which means, materials will undergo an inspection prior to the material reaches the plant for Goods Receipt (GR).
This inspection will be purely based on the purchase order created in the SAP system against a material – vendor – plant combination. There will not be any GR (Goods Receipt) inspection if the material is already cleared through the source inspection.
Q info record is also useful in scenarios where inspection is restricted. Which means that the inspection should be continued if it is procured from “xyz” vendor but not in the case when it is procured by some “abc” vendor.
How to Create Master Inspection Characteristics in SAP QM
Here is a step by step process on how to create Master Inspection Characteristics in SAP QM:
Step 1) Go to SAP Easy access menu
From SAP Easy access menu, open Transaction code QS21
- Enter Plant Code.
- Enter master inspection characteristic code which needs to be created.
- Enter the Key date (valid from date) which means that MIC would be valid from that date.
After filling in all the fields, click or press Enter to go to the next screen.
Step 2) Maintain the master inspection characteristics general data
In this step, we will maintain Master inspection characteristic general data as given below.
- Tick the checkbox for quantitative if we are creating quantitative characteristic which can be measured.
- Enter Status as “Released.”
- Enter “Complete copy model” as the MIC data needs to be maintained completely.
- Enter the Short text of your choice.
- Press Control indicators button to maintain other important data like lower and upper limits i.e. specification range in which material would be accepted.
Step 3) Maintain the upper and lower limits
In this step, after pressing control indicator button, the small screen will pop up where we will maintain the lower and upper limit data.
- Flag the checkbox for Lower specification limit.
- Flag the checkbox for upper specification limit.
- Flag the checkbox for sampling procedure as we would use sampling procedure for this MIC.
Press enter to move to the next SAP screen.
Step 4) Maintain the absolute lower and upper limit data
In this step, we will maintain absolute lower and upper limit data.
- Input number of decimal places and measurement unit for MIC
- Input the lower spec limit as 4
- Input the upper spec limit as 4.5.
Press enter to move to the initial SAP screen and save the data. You will see the message as .
How to Create Inspection Methods in SAP
Here are the steps to create Inspection methods in SAP:
Step 1) From SAP Easy access menu, open Transaction code QS31
- Enter Plant Code.
- Enter inspection method code which needs to be created.
- Enter the valid from the date which means that inspection method would be valid from that date.
Press enter to move to the next SAP QM screen.
Step 2) In this SAP QM screen,
- Enter status as “released”.
- Enter the short text of the inspection method and search field for searching for inspection methods.
Press save button to save the inspection method.
How to Create Sampling Procedure in SAP
Below is a step by step process on how to create sampling procedure in SAP:
Step 1) From SAP Easy access screen open Transaction QDV1
- Input sampling procedure code which we need to create.
Step 2) After filling in all the fields, click (right mark sign) sign from the top menu to go to the next SAP screen.
- Choose sampling type as “Fixed sample” but you can also select 100% inspection or sampling scheme.
- Select Valuation mode “Attributive inspection non confirming units” which defines the rules for accepting and rejecting characteristic.
- Press next button to move to the next SAP screen.
Step 3) In this SAP screen,
- Press “Sample” button which will open a small pop-up screen to define the sample size.
- Define the sample size as “5”.
Press save button to save the sampling procedure.
How to Create Inspection Plan in SAP QM
Following are the steps to create inspection plan in SAP QM:
Step 1) From SAP Easy access screen open Transaction QP01
- Input material code which we need to create an inspection plan.
- Enter Plant code.
- Enter the key date (valid from) from which inspection plan would be valid.
Press enter button from the keyboard to move to next screen.
Step 2) In this SAP screen, we will maintain header data
- Input usage as “5” which means inspection plan will be valid for goods receipt and status as “4” which means the plan is released.
- Enter lot size as “99999999” which means inspection plan is valid for inspection lot quantity of 99999999.
- Press “operations” button to move to the next screen.
Step 3) In this SAP screen, we will maintain operation-data where inspection characteristics will be maintained.
- Input the Quality lab work center.
- Enter the control key as “QM01” which means the operation is meant for quality check.
- Press “Inspection Characteristics” button to move to the next SAP screen.
Step 4) In this SAP screen, we will maintain inspection characteristics for the operation
- Input the Master inspection characteristic name “MOIST”.
- Enter the Inspection method.
- Input sampling Procedure to determine the sample.
After entering all fields, Lower and upper limits are populated automatically.
Press save button to save the inspection plan for the material.
How to Create Quality Info Records in SAP
Here is a step by step process on how to create quality info records in SAP:
Step 1) From SAP Easy access screen open Transaction QI01
- Input the material code which we need to create quality info records.
- Enter vendor code.
- Input the plant code.
Press enter button from the keyboard to move to the next screen.
Step 2) In this SAP screen, we will maintain release date
- Input Release until this date which means the material can be ordered from the vendor till release date.
- Enter Block function if you want to block this material to be ordered from this particular vendor.
Press Insp. Control-Tab to move to the next screen.
Step 3) In this SAP screen, we will maintain inspection control data.
- Input the Inspection control as “No Inspection” if you do not want to inspect the material for this particular vendor.
- If you want to use source inspection, then flag the checkbox for source inspection and enter source inspection type as “01” else keep it blank.
Press save button to save the quality info record.
- Before creation Inspection plan and quality info records, master inspection characteristic, sampling procedure, inspection method, material master, vendor master should be available in the SAP system.