In this tutorial of difference between Kotlin vs Java, we will discuss the key differences between Java vs Kotlin. But before discussing the Kotlin and Java difference, let’s first learn “What is Kotlin?” and “What is Java?”. Let’s start with Kotlin:
What is Kotlin?
Kotlin is an open-source programming language that can run on Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The language can run on numerous platforms.
It is a language that combines Object Oriented Programming (OOPs) and functional programming in an unrestricted, self - sufficient and distinctive platform.
Java is a multi-platform, object-oriented, and network-centric, programming language. It is among the most used programming language. It also used as a computing platform, and it was first released by Sun Microsystem in 1995. It was later acquired by Oracle Corporation.
Kotlin combines features of both object-oriented and functional programming, whereas Java is limited to object-oriented programming.
Kotlin allows users to create an extension function while Java doesn't offer any extension functions.
Kotlin doesn't offer implicit conversions, and Java supports implicit conversions.
There are no null variables or objects in Kotlin on the other hand, Null variable or objects are part of Java language.
Kotlin doesn't support static members, while Java uses static members.
In, Kotlin variables of a primitive type are objects while in Java Variables of a primitive type aren't objects
Kotlin supports Lambda Expression whereas Java doesn't support Lambda expression.
Kotlin doesn't require any variable datatype specifications while Java requires variable datatype specifications.
Kotlin doesn't require any variable datatype specifications but Java requires variable datatype specifications .
Kotlin programs don't require semicolons in their program while Java program does need a semicolon.
Language scripting capabilities allow you to use Kotlin directly in your Gradle build scripts while Java does not offer language scripting capabilities.
Features of Kotlin
Here, are important features of Kotlin
Offers Trimmed Coding
Kotlin utilizes JVM, which combines the features of OOPs and functional-oriented programming.
Offers fast compilation
Kotlin can support a variety of extension functions without making any changes to the code
You can write Kotlin code using IDE or using the command-line interface
Smart feature casting helps you to cut down the application costs and improves its speed or performance.
Features of Java
Here are the important features of Java.
Write code once and run it on almost any computing platform
It is designed for building object-oriented applications.
It is a multithreaded language that allows automatic memory management.
Facilitates distributed computing as its network-centric.
History of Kotlin
Here, are important landmarks from the history of Kotlin:
In 2016, Kotlin v1.0 was launched
In 2017, Announcement of Google on the first-class support of Kotlin in Android
In 2018, Kotlin v1.3 version released bringing coroutines for asynchronous programming.
In 2019, Google announced Kotlin as its preferred programming language for Android application developers
History of JAVA
Here, are important landmarks from the history of Java language
The Java language was initially called OAK. Originally, it was developed for handling portable devices and set-top boxes. Oak was a massive failure.
In 1995, Sun changed the name to "Java" and modified the language to take advantage of the burgeoning www (World Wide Web) development business.
Later in 2009, Oracle Corporation acquired Sun Microsystems and took ownership of three key Sun software assets: Java, MySQL, and Solaris.
Difference between Kotlin and Java
Here, are differences between Kotlin vs Java
Kotlin allows users to create an extension function.
Java doesn't offer any extension functions.
Kotlin doesn't require too much work for data classes.
Java developers write and construct a lot of elements to develop classes
Kotlin doesn't offer implicit conversions.
Java supports implicit conversions.
There are no null variables or objects in Kotlin.
Null variable or objects are part of Java language.
Kotlin combines features of both object-oriented and functional programming.
Java is limited to object-oriented programming.
Kotlin doesn't support static members.
Java uses static members.
Variables of a primitive type are objects
Variables of a primitive type aren't objects
In Kotlin, we can have one or more secondary constructors.
In Java, we can't have secondary constructors. However, it can have multiple constructors.
Kotlin string template also supports expression.
Java string doesn't support expression like Kotlin.
It's quite easier to deploy Kotlin code.
It is hard to deploy Java code.
Kotlin programs don't require semicolons in their program.
Java program does need a semicolon.
In Kotlin, coroutine are concurrency design pattern which can be used to simplify code.
Java uses two coroutine options as 1) Rx Java and 2) Project loom.
Kotlin doesn't have any wildcard-types.
Wide-card is available in Java.
Kotlin's type of system has inbuilt null safety.
NullPonter Exception is mainly responsible for the development of Java and Android.
Smart cast feature is available in Kotlin.
Smart cast feature in not available in Java.
Kotlin doesn't require any variable datatype specifications
Java requires variable datatype specifications.
Kotlin supports Lambda Expression.
Java doesn't support Lambda expression.
Lazy-Loading feature is available in Kotlin.
This feature is not available in Java.
Language scripting capabilities allow you to use Kotlin directly in your Gradle build scripts
Java does not offer language scripting capabilities.
It supports modern programming concepts like delegates, extension, higher-order functions.
Java supports OOPS programming concept.
The average salary for a java developer is $104,793 per year.
The average salary for "kotlin" ranges from approximately $107,275 per year for Software Engineer to $121,034 per year for Android Developer.
Advantage of Kotlin
Here, are benefits/pros of Kotlin:
Using the Kotlin Multiplatform framework, you can extract one common codebase that will target all of them at the same time
Kotlin offers built-in null safety support, which is a lifesaver, especially on Android, which is full of old Java-style APIs.
It's more concise and expressive than Java, which means there is less room for error.
Offers user-friendly and understandable coding norms
Divides large apps into smaller layers.
Uses lots of function types and specialized language structures like lambda expressions.
Helps developers to create extension functions
Offers a very simple and almost automated way of creating data classes
Kotlin is a statically-typed language, so it is very easy to read and write.
This language allows the exchange and use of information from Java in various ways.
It'll take less time to write new code in Kotlin.
It's quite easier to deploy kotlin code and to maintain it at scale.
Advantages of Java
Here, are pros/benefits of Java
Checked exceptions that improve error detecting and solving
Detailed documentation is available.
A large pool of skilled developers available
A huge array of 3rd party libraries
It allows you to form standard programs and reusable code.
It is a multi-threaded environment that allows you to perform many tasks simultaneously in a program.
Easy to navigate libraries
Disadvantage of Kotlin
Here, are cons/drawback of using Kotlin:
Small community of developers, so it lacks learning materials and professional assistance.
Java doesn't offer a function of checked exceptions that may lead to errors.
Slower compilation speed than Java
Kotlin, being a highly declarative language, sometimes it helps you to generate great amounts of boilerplate in corresponding JVM bytecode
Disadvantages of Java
Here, are cons/disadvantages of Java:
Not very suitable for Android API design because of a number of limitations
Demands a lot of manual work which increases the number of potential errors
JIT compiler makes the program comparatively slow.
Java has high memory and processing requirements.
It does not provide support for low-level programming constructs like pointers.
You don't have any control over garbage collection as Java does not offer functions like delete(), free().
Which is Better?
When considering all the pitfalls of Java, especially the problem with NullPointerExceptions, Kotlin seems to be the better one among the two.
Although Java is still an essential language for every android app development as the Android OS itself is based on the same.
If you are looking to future proof your android app development services, then you should hire Kotlin developers for the same.