Loops can execute a block of code number of times until a certain condition is met. Their usage is fairly common in programming. Unlike other programming language that have For Loop, whileloop, dowhile, etc. Python has only two loop functions
1) While Loop
2) For Loop
In this tutorial, we will learn
- How to use "While Loop"
- How to use "For Loop"
- How to use For Loop for set of other things besides numbers
- Break statements in For Loop
- Continue statement in For Loop
- Enumerate function for For Loop
- Pratical Example
- How to use for loop to repeat the same statement over and again
Whileloop does the exactly same thing what "if statement" does, but instead of running the code block once, they jump back to the point where it began the code and repeats the whole process again.
While expression: Statement:
- Code Line 4: Variable x is set to 0
- Code Line 7: While loop checks for condition x<4. The current value of x is 0. Condition is true. Flow of control enters into while Loop
- Code Line 8: Value of x is printed
- Code Line 9: x is incremented by 1. Flow of control goes back to line 7. Now the value of x is 1 which is less than 4. The condition is true, and again the while loop is executed. This continues till x becomes 4, and the while condition becomes false.
In Python, "for loops" are called iterators.
Just like while loop, "For Loop" is also used to repeat the program.
But unlike while loop which depends on condition true or false. "For Loop" depends on the elements it has to iterate.
For Loop iterates with number declared in the range.
For Loop for x in range (2,7)
When this code is executed, it will print the number between 2 and 7 (2,3,4,5,6). In this code, number 7 is not considered inside the range.
For Loops can also be used for a set of other things and not just number. We will see thin in next section.
In this step, we will see how "for loops" can also be used for other things besides numbers.
Code Line 3: We store the months ("Jan, Feb , Mar,April,May,June") in variable Months
Code Line 4: We iterate the for loop over each value in Months. The current value of Months in stored in variable m
Code Line 5: Print the month
Breakpoint is a unique function in For Loop that allows you to break or terminate the execution of the for loop
Example: In this example, we declared the numbers from 10-20, but we want that our for loop to terminate at number 15 and stop executing further. For that, we declare break function by defining (x==15): break, so as soon as the code calls the number 15 it terminates the program Code Line 10 declare variable x between range (10, 20)
- Code Line 11 declare the condition for breakpoint at x==15,
- Code Line 12 checks and repeats the steps until it reaches number 15
- Code Line 13 Print the result in output
Continue function, as the name indicates, will terminate the current iteration of the for loop BUT will continue execution of the remaining iterations.
Continue statement can be used in forloop when you want to fetch a specific value from the list.
In our example, we have declared value 10-20, but between these numbers we only want those number that are NOT divisible by 5 or in other words which don't give zero when divided by 5.
So, in our range (10,11, 12….19,20) only 3 numbers falls (10,15,20) that are divisible by 5 and rest are not.
So except number 10,15 & 20 the "forloop" will not continue and print out those number as output.
- Code line 10 declare the variable x for range (10, 20)
- Code line 12 declare the condition for x divided by 5=0 continue
- Code line 13 print the result
Enumerate function in "for loop" does two things
- It returns the index number for the member
- And the member of the collection that we are looking at
Enumerate function is used for the numbering or indexing the members in the list.
Suppose, we want to do numbering for our month ( Jan, Feb, Marc, ….June), so we declare the variable i that enumerate the numbers while m will print the number of month in list.
When code is executed the output of the enumerate function returns the months name with an index number like (0-Jan), (1- Feb), (2- March), etc.
- Code Line 3 declares the list of months [ Jan, Feb,…Jun]
- Code Line 4 declares variable i and m for For Loop
- Code Line 5 will print the result and again enter the For Loop for the rest of the months to enumerate
Let see another example for ForLoop to repeat the same statement over and again.
Working Code for all exercises
Code for while loop
def main(): x=0 while (x<4): print x x= x+1 if __name__== "__main__": main()
Simple code for forloop
def main(): x=0 for x in range (2,7): print x if __name__== "__main__": main()
Use of forloop in string
def main(): Months = ["Jan","Feb","Mar","April","May","June"] for m in (Months): print m if __name__== "__main__": main()
Use break-statement in forloop
def main(): for x in range (10,20): if (x == 15): break print x if __name__== "__main__": main()
Use of Continue statement in forloop
def main(): for x in range (10,20): if (x % 5 == 0): continue print x if __name__== "__main__": main()
Code for "enumerate function" with "forloop"
def main(): Months = ["Jan","Feb","Mar","April","May","June"] for i, m in enumerate (Months): print i,m if __name__== "__main__": main()
You can use for loop for even repeating the same statement over and again. Here in the example we have printed out word "guru99" three times.
Example: To repeat same statement number of times, we have declared the number in variable i (i in 123). So when you run the code as shown below, it prints the statement (guru99) that many times the number declared for our the variable in ( i in 123).
for i in '123': print "guru99",i,
The output of this code will be
Like other programming languages, Python also uses a loop but instead of using a range of different loops it is restricted to only two loops "While loop" and "for loop".
- While loops are executed based on whether the conditional statement is true or false.
- For loops are called iterators, it iterates the element based on the condition set
- Python For loops can also be used for a set of various other things (specifying the collection of elements we want to loop over)
- Breakpoint is used in For Loop to break or terminate the program at any particular point
- Continue statement will continue to print out the statement, and prints out the result as per the condition set
- Enumerate function in "for loop" returns the member of the collection that we are looking at with the index number