Key Differences between Dependent and Independent Variables
- A dependent variable is a variable whose value depends on another variable, whereas An Independent variable is a variable whose value never depends on another variable.
- The dependent variable is the presumed effect, On the other hand, the Independent variable is the presumed cause.
- Dependent variables are often referred to as the predicted variable, but independent variables are the predictors or regressors.
- Dependent variables are obtained from longitudinal research or by solving complex mathematical equations, On the contrary, Independent variables do not need any complex mathematical procedures and observations.
- Dependent variables are positioned vertically on the graph, while Independent variables are positioned horizontally on the graph.
- Any change in the dependent variable does not affect the independent variable, while Any change in the independent variable also affects the dependent variable.
What is a Dependent Variable?
The dependent variable is the variable that is measured or tested in an experiment. It is the result of the participants’ actions, which can be changed according to the outcome of the action performed by the participant.
What is an Independent Variable?
An Independent variable is exactly according to its name. It means it stands along with a variable that cannot be changed by another variable. Independent variables are also known as predictions or factors.
Dependent vs Independent Variables
Here is the difference between Independent and Dependent Variable:
|Independent Variable||Dependent Variable|
|An Independent variable is a variable whose value never depends on another variable but the researcher.||A dependent variable is a variable whose value depends on another variable.|
|The Independent variable is the presumed cause.||The dependent variable is the presumed effect.|
|Any change in the independent variable also affects the dependent variable.||Dependent variable changes, then the independent variable will not be affected.|
|Independent variables are the predictors or regressors.||Dependent variables are often referred as the predicted variable.|
|Independent variables can become easily obtainable and do not need any complex mathematical procedures and observations.||Dependent variables are obtained from longitudinal research or by solving complex mathematical equations.|
|Independent variables are can be manipulated by the researcher. So he or she is biased. Then it may affect the results of the research.||You cannot be manipulated by the research or any other external factor.|
|Independent variables are positioned horizontally on the graph.||Dependent variables are positioned vertically on the graph.|
Independent and Dependent Variables Examples
Let us assume that teacher asks 100 students to complete a science test. By doing this, she wants to know why some students score better than others.
Here the teacher does not know the answer. Therefore she thinks that it might be because of the following two reasons:
- Some students spend higher-time revising for their tests.
- Few students are more intelligent than others.
The teacher decides to analyze the effect of revision time. Based on the test performance of that 100 students.
Which are the dependent and independent variables?
- Test Mark (which can be measured from 0 to 100)
- Revision time (which is measured in hours)
- Intelligence (which is measured using IQ score)
Now let see another example:
How does increment affect employees’ motivation?
Independent variable: Increment
Dependent variable: Employees motivation
How higher education can lead to higher Income:
- Higher education: Independent variable
- Higher Income: Dependent variable
It is causally affected by education and itself affects Income.
Remembering Variables With DRY MIX
When you plot in graphs, the convention is to use the independent variable as the x-axis and the dependent variable as the y-axis.
The DRY MIX can help keep the variables straight:
- D – Dependent variable
- R – Responding variable
- Y – Axis on which the dependent or responding variable is graphed- (the vertical axis)
- M – It is the change variable or manipulated variable which value can be changed using in the experiment
- I – is the independent variable
- X – is the axis on which the independent or manipulated variable is graphed.