What is the C++ language?
C++ is a computer programming language that contains the feature of C programming language as well as Simula67 (first object Oriented language). C++ introduced the concept of Class and Objects.
It encapsulates high and low-level language features. So, it is seen as an intermediate level language. Earlier it was called “C with classes” as it had all the properties of the C language.
What is the Java language?
Java is programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. A small software development team developed this language. They were known as the Green Team, who initiated Java language in the year 1991.
History of C++
C++ language was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at AT & T Bell Laboratories. Stroustrup was a strong supporter of C and an admirer of Simula67. He wanted to combine the best of both the languages. He was aiming to create a language which supports object-oriented programming features and still retains the power of C. This resulted in C++.
History of Java
The Java language was initially called OAK. Originally, it was developed for handling devices and set-top boxes. Oak was a massive failure. Thus, in 1995 Sun changed the name to Java and modified the language to take advantage of the burgeoning World Wide Web development business.
Later, in 2009, Oracle Corporation acquired Sun Microsystems and took ownership of two key Sun software assets: Java and Solaris.
- C++ uses only compiler, whereas Java uses compiler and interpreter both.
- C++ supports both operator overloading & method overloading whereas Java only supports method overloading.
- C++ supports manual object management with the help of new and delete keywords whereas Java has built-in automatic garbage collection.
- C++ supports structures whereas Java doesn’t supports structures.
- C++ supports unions while Java doesn’t support unions.
C++ Vs. Java
|Relationship||No strict relationship between class names and filenames. In C++, header files and implementation files are used for specific class.||The strict relationship is enforced, e.g., the source code for class PayRoll has to be in PayRoll.java.|
|Input mechanism||I/O statements use in and cout, e.g., in » x; cout« y;||I/O input mechanism is a quite complex as it reads one byte at a time (System.in). Output is easy, e.g. System.out.println(x);|
|Compiler and Interpreter||C++ only support compiler||Java supports both compiler and interpreter|
|Compatibility with other languages||Compatible with C source code, except some exceptional cases.||No backward compatibility with any previous language. The syntax is influenced by C/C++.|
|Access control and object protection||Flexible model with constant protection available||The cumbersome model encourages weak encapsulation.|
|Concept||Write once compile anywhere||Write once run anywhere everywhere|
|Support for programming type||Allows both procedural programming and object-oriented programming.||Support object-oriented programming model.|
|Interface||Allows direct calls to native system libraries.||Only call through the Java Native Interface and recently Java Native Access|
|Memory management||Accessible to programmer||System controlled|
|Root hierarchy||C++ there is no such root hierarchy. C++ supports both procedural and object-oriented programming; therefore, it is called a hybrid language.||Java is a pure object-oriented programming language. That’s. Why It follows single root hierarchy.|
|Best features||C++ supports Object-oriented features Procedural programming features.||Java support automatic garbage collection. It does not support destructors as C++ does.|
|Goto Statement||C++ has a goto statement. Although, it is not ideal to a use a goto statement.||Java has no goto statement. The keywords got, and const are reserved even if they are not used.|
|Multiple inheritance||C++ provide multipleInheritance. The keyword virtual is used to resolveproblems during multipleinheritance if there is any.||Java doesn’t provide multiple inheritance.|
|Scope resolution operator||C++ has scope resolution operator
||No scope resolution operator
|Supporting method||C++ supports both method overloading & operator overloading||Java only supports method overloading. It does not provide support for operator overloading.|
|Portability||The source must be recompiled for the platform; hence the code is not portable.||Bytecode classes are transferrable to platform-specific JVM’s.|
|Type semantics||Consistent between primitive and object types.||Differ for primitive and object types.|
|Libraries||Predominantly low-level functionality||Massive, classes for high-level services.|
|Runtime error detection||Programmer responsibility.||System Responsibility.|
|Functions & Data||Functions and data may exist external to any class, global and namespace scopes are available.||All function and data exist within classes; package scope are available.|
|Platform||C++ programs are platform dependent. They need to be compiled for a particular platform.||Java programs are platform independent. Java programs are written for Java Virtual Machine (JVM). It will run without needing recompilation.|
|Runtime error detection||In C++, It is Programmer responsibility to check the errors.||It is system responsibility to check error in the program.|
|Pointer||C++ support pointers.||Java offers only limited support for pointers.|
|Structure||It supports structures.||It does not any support for structures.|
|Unions||C++ supports unions.||Java does not support unions.|
|Object management||C++ supports manual object management with the help of new and delete keywords.||Java is heavy depend on automatic garbage collection. It does not support destructors.|