SAP Infoobject, Infoarea, Infoobject Catalog Tutorial

What is an InfoObjects?

Info-Objects take information from the source, then adjust and arrange the information into either a standard or customized report.  Infoobjects are the smallest available information modules/fields in BI. It is needed in info-providers like InfoCubes, DSOs, MultiProviders, Queries etc...  These Info-Providers are made up of Info-objects.

Info-object gives all information about the business. For instance company ‘XYZ’ is interested in finding out how much of “product x” shipped on “date x” to “factory x”.  By defining Info-object for specific function like “0MATERIAL”, “0DATE” and “0LOCATION” all the information can be retrieved.

InfoObjects can be classified into the following types:

  • Characteristics (for example, customers)
  • Key figures (for example, revenue)
  • Units (for example, currency, amount unit)
  • Time characteristics (for example, fiscal year)
  • Technical characteristics (for example, request number)

Characteristics:

Characteristics are Business reference objects used to analyze key figures.

Examples of characteristics InfoObjects:

  • Cost center (0COSTCENTER) 
  • Material(0MATERIAL)

Keyfigures:

Key figures provide the values to be evaluated. They are numeric information that is reported in the query.      

Examples of key figure InfoObjects:

  • Quantity (0QUANTITY)
  • Amount (0AMOUNT)

Units:

Units are paired with Key figure values . They provide assign a unit of measurement to a Key Figure Value. For instance 10 Kg where 10 is the KeyFigure and Kg is the unit

Other Examples of Unit Characteristics:

  • Currency unit (0CURRENCY) (Holds the currency type of the transaction e.g. $, EUR, USD...)
  • Value unit (0UNIT)  (or) unit of measure (Hold the unit of measure e.g. Gallon, Inch, cm, PC)

Time Characteristic:

Time characteristics give time reference to data.

Examples of Time Characteristics:

  • Calendar day (0CALDAY)
  • Calendar year (0CALYEAR)
  • Fiscal year (0FISCYEAR)

Technical Characteristics:

Technical characteristics are SAP standard objects having their own administrative purposes.

Examples of Technical Characteristics:

  • Info Object 0REQUID – While loading data to various data targets,  SAP allocates unique numbers which are stored in this Info object
  • Info Object 0CHNGID – When aggregate change run is done, a unique number is allocated and stored in this info object.

Before creating an Info Object, Info Area and Info Object Catalog need to be created.

What is an InfoArea?

  • In Business Warehouse, Info-areas are the branches and nodes of a tree structure.
  • It is used to organize info cubes and info objects. 
  • Each Info-object is assigned to an Info Area.
  • Info Area can be thought of as a folder used to hold related files together.

What is Infoobject Catalog?

  • Every info object need to be created within an Info Object Catalog.
  • It helps in organization and is no way related to reporting functions.
  • Example: There are tons of InfoObjects for SAP Financials which can be clubbed into a InfoObject Catalog.  This makes management and maintainence easy.
  • An Info Object can be assigned to multiple Catalog

There are 2 types of Info Object Catalog.

  1. Characteristic Info Object Catalog
  2. Key figure Info Object Catalog

Here is the RoadMAP to create an Infoobject