PL/SQL is an Oracle procedural extension for SQL. They have designed this language for easy use of complex SQL statements.
Before we start learning program logic in PL/SQL, let's discuss the important factors in PL/SQL that is mandatory for the programmers to understand how the PL/SQL works.
In this tutorial, you will learn-
PL SQL basically stands for "Procedural Language extensions to SQL". This is the extension of Structured Query Language (SQL) that is used in Oracle. Unlike SQL, PL/SQL allows the programmer to write code in procedural format.
It combines the data manipulation power of SQL with the processing power of procedural language to create a super powerful SQL queries.
It allows the programmers to instruct the compiler 'what to do' through SQL and 'how to do' through its procedural way.
Similar to other database languages, it gives more control to the programmers by the use of loops, conditions and object oriented concepts.
The PL/SQL architecture mainly consists of following 3 components:
- PL/SQL block
- PL/SQL Engine
- Database Server
- This is the component which has the actual PL/SQL code.
- This consists of different sections to divide the code logically (declarative section for declaring purpose, execution section for processing statements, exception handling section for handling errors)
- It also contains the SQL instruction that used to interact with the database server.
- All the PL/SQL units are treated as PL/SQL blocks, and this is the starting stage of the architecture which serves as the primary input.
- Following are the different type of PL/SQL units.
- Anonymous Block
- Package Body
- Package Specification
- Type Body
- PL/SQL engine is the component where the actual processing of the codes takes place.
- PL/SQL engine separates PL/SQL units and SQL part in the input (as shown in the image below).
- The separated PL/SQL units will be handled with the PL/SQL engine itself.
- The SQL part will be sent to database server where the actual interaction with database takes place.
- It can be installed in both database server and in the application server.
- This is the most important component of Pl/SQL unit which stores the data.
- The PL/SQL engine uses the SQL from PL/SQL units to interact with the database server.
- It consists of SQL executor which actually parses the input SQL statements and execute the same.
Below is the pictorial representation of Architecture of PL/SQL.
- Better performance, as sql is executed in bulk rather than a single statement
- High Productivity
- Tight integration with SQL
- Full Portability
- Tight Security
- Support Object Oriented Programming concepts.
In this section, we will discuss some differences between SQL and PL/SQL