Cassandra Query Language(CQL): Insert Into, Update (Example)

In this article, you will learn Cassandra commands with CQL examples-

Insert Data

The Cassandra insert statement writes data in Cassandra columns in row form. Cassandra insert query will store only those columns that are given by the user. You have to necessarily specify just the primary key column.

It will not take any space for not given values. No results are returned after insertion.

Syntax

Insert into KeyspaceName.TableName(ColumnName1, ColumnName2, ColumnName3 . . . .)
values (Column1Value, Column2Value, Column3Value . . . .)

Example

Here is the snapshot of the executed Cassandra Insert into table query that will insert one record in Cassandra table ‘Student’.

Insert into command in Cassandra Query Language

Insert into University.Student(RollNo,Name,dept,Semester) values(2,'Michael','CS', 2);

After successful execution of the command Insert into Cassandra, one row will be inserted in the Cassandra table Student with RollNo 2, Name Michael, dept CS and Semester 2.

Here is the snapshot of the current database state.

Example of Insert into command in Cassandra Query Language

Upsert Data

Cassandra does upsert. Upsert means that Cassandra will insert a row if a primary key does not exist already otherwise if primary key already exists, it will update that row.

Update Data

The Cassandra Update query is used to update the data in the Cassandra table. If no results are returned after updating data, it means data is successfully updated otherwise an error will be returned. Column values are changed in ‘Set’ clause while data is filtered with ‘Where’ clause.

Syntax

Update KeyspaceName.TableName 
Set ColumnName1=new Column1Value,
      ColumnName2=new Column2Value,
      ColumnName3=new Column3Value,
       .
       .
       .
Where ColumnName=ColumnValue

Example

Here is the screenshot that shows the database state before updating data.

Update command in Cassandra Query Language

Here is the snapshot of the executed Cassandra Update command that updates the record in the Student table.

Example of Update command in Cassandra Query Language

Update University.Student
Set name='Hayden'
Where rollno=1;

After successful execution of the update query in Cassandra ‘Update Student’, student name will be changed from ‘Clark’ to ‘Hayden’ that has rollno 1.

Here is the screenshot that shows the database state after updating data.

Example of Update command in Cassandra Query Language

Cassandra Delete Data

Command ‘Delete’ removes an entire row or some columns from the table Student. When data is deleted, it is not deleted from the table immediately. Instead deleted data is marked with a tombstone and are removed after compaction.

Syntax

Delete from KeyspaceName.TableName
	Where ColumnName1=ColumnValue

The above Cassandra delete row syntax will delete one or more rows depend upon data filtration in where clause.

Delete ColumnNames from KeyspaceName.TableName
	Where ColumnName1=ColumnValue

The above syntax will delete some columns from the table.

Example

Here is the snapshot that shows the current database state before deleting data.

Delete command in Cassandra Query Language

Here is the snapshot of the command that will remove one row from the table Student.

Example of Delete command in Cassandra Query Language

Delete from University.Student where rollno=1;

After successful execution of the CQL Delete command, one rows will be deleted from the table Student where rollno value is 1.

Here is the snapshot that shows the database state after deleting data.

Example of Delete command in Cassandra Query Language

What Cassandra does not support

There are following limitations in Cassandra query language (CQL).

  1. CQL does not support aggregation queries like max, min, avg
  2. CQL does not support group by, having queries.
  3. CQL does not support joins.
  4. CQL does not support OR queries.
  5. CQL does not support wildcard queries.
  6. CQL does not support Union, Intersection queries.
  7. Table columns cannot be filtered without creating the index.
  8. Greater than (>) and less than (<) query is only supported on clustering column.

    Cassandra query language is not suitable for analytics purposes because it has so many limitations.

Cassandra Where Clause

In Cassandra, data retrieval is a sensitive issue. The column is filtered in Cassandra by creating an index on non-primary key columns.

Syntax

Select ColumnNames from KeyspaceName.TableName Where ColumnName1=Column1Value AND
	ColumnName2=Column2Value AND
	.
	.
	.

Example

  • Here is the snapshot that shows the data retrieval from Student table without data filtration.

Cassandra Where Clause

select * from University.Student;

Two records are retrieved from Student table.

  • Here is the snapshot that shows the data retrieval from Student with data filtration. One record is retrieved.

Data is filtered by name column. All the records are retrieved that has name equal to Guru99.

Example of Cassandra Where Clause

select * from University.Student where name='Guru99';