All About ABAP Report Programming

SAP-ABAP supports two types of Programs -  Report Programs & Dialog Programs. Report Programs are used when large amounts of data needs to be displayed

Purpose/Use of Report Programs

  • They are used  when data from a number of tables have to be selected and processed before presenting
  • Used when reports demand  a special format
  • Used when the report has to be downloaded from SAP to an Excel sheet to be distributed across.
  • Used when the report has to be mailed to a particular person.

Important Points to Note About Report Program

  • Report Programs are always Executable Programs. Program Type is always 1.
  • Every Report program corresponds to a particular Application Type i.e. either with Sales & Distribution, FI - CO etc. It can also be Cross Application i.e. type '*'.
  • Report Programming is an Event-driven programming.
  • The first line of a report program is always Report <report-name>.
  • In order to suppress the list heading or the name of the program the addition No Standard Page Heading is used.
  • The line size for a particular report can be set by using the addition line-size <size>.
  • The line count for a particular page can be set by using the addition line-count n(n1). N is the number of lines for the page and N1 is the number of lines reserved for the page footer.
  • To display any information or error message we add a message class to the program using the addition: Message-id <message class name>. Message classes are maintained in SE91.
Therefore an ideal report program should start with:
Report <report name> no standard page heading

line-size <size>

line-count <n(n1)>

message-id <message class>.

Selection Screen

"Selection screen"  is the screen where one specifies the input values for which the program should run.

The selection screen is normally generated from the

  1. Parameters
  2. Select-Options

Syntax

Selection-screen begin of screen <screen #>
selection-screen begin of block <#>  with frame title <text>
.........
.........
selection-screen end of block <#>
selection-screen end of screen <screen #>

Parameters

Parameters helps one to do dynamic selection. They can accommodate only one value for one cycle of execution of the program.

Syntax

Defining parameters as a data type

Parameters p_id(30) type c.

Defining parameters like a table field.

Parameter p_id like <table name>-<field name>.

Parameters can be Checkboxes as well as Radiobuttons.

Parameters p_id as checkbox.Parameters p_id1 radiobutton group <group name>.
Parameters p_id2  radiobutton group <group name>.

Parameters can be listbox.

Parameter p_id like <table name>-<field name> as listbox

Select Options

A Select-Option is used to input a range of values or a set of values to a program

Syntax

select-options s_vbeln for vbak-vbeln.

Sap-Select-Option-Report-Programming

You can also define a select option like a variable

select-options s_vbeln for vbak-vbeln no intervals no-extension

Events in an ABAP Report Program

ABAP report programs are event driven programs. The different events in a report Program are:

Load-of-program

  • Triggers the associated event in an internal session after loading a program of type 1, M, F, or S.
  • Also runs the associated processing block once and once only for each program and internal session.
  • The processing block LOAD-OF-PROGRAM has roughly the same function for an ABAP program of type 1, M, F or S as a constructor has for classes in ABAP Objects

Initialization.

  • This event is executed before the selection screen is displayed .
  • Initialization of all the values.
  • You can assign different values other than the values defaulted on the selection screen .
  • You can fill your selection screen with some values at runtime.

At Selection-Screen.

  • The event is processed when the selection screen has been processed (at the end of PAI ).
  • Validation & Checks of inputted values happen here

Start-of-Selection.

  • Here the program starts selecting values from tables.

End-of-selection.

  • After all the data has been selected this event writes the data to the screen.

Interactive Events

  • Used for interactive reporting. It is used to create a detailed list from a basic list.

Formatting the report

ABAP allows the reports to be formatted as the user wants it to be. For example, "Alternate Lines" must appear in different colors and the "Totals" line should appear in Yellow.

Syntax

Format Color n

Format Color n Intensified On

n may correspond to various numbers

Please note that there are other additions along with format as well

FORMAT COLOR OFF INTENSIFIED OFF INVERSE OFF HOTSPOT OFF INPUT OFF

Interactive Programming

  • Using Interactive Programming users  can actively control the data retrieval and display of data
  • Used to  create a detailed list from a very basic list
  • The detailed data is written on a secondary list.
  • The secondary list may either completely overlay the first screen or one can display it in a new screen
  • The secondary lists can be themselves interactive.
  • The first list may also call a transaction.
  • There are different events associated with interactive programming.

Some commands used for interactive programming
Hotspot
If one drags the mouse over the data displayed in the repor the cursor changes to a Hand with an Outstretched Index finger. An hotspot can be achieved using the FORMAT statement.

Syntax:      Format Hotspot On (Off).

Hide
This command helps you to store the field names based on which one will be doing further processing to get a detailed list. It is written directly after the WRITE statement for a field. When a row is selected the values get automatically filled in the variables for further use.

Syntax:     Hide <field-name>.

Logical Databases

  • Instead of using "Select" queries you can use logical database to retrieve data for a program.
  • Logical databases are created by transaction SE36
  • The name of a logical database can be up to 20 characters long. It may begin with a namespace prefix.
  • The data is selected by another program and one can access the data using GET <table-name> command which places the data in the work area <table-name>.

Advantages of a logical database over normal Select queries.

  1. It offers check conditions to see whether the input is correct, complete and plausible
  2. It contains central authorization checks for database access
  3. Enhancements such as improvement in performance immediately apply to all reports which use logical database.
Note: Due to the complexities involved, logical databases are not used in most of the cases
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